Cicada Mania

Dedicated to cicadas, the most amazing insects in the world.

Cicadas have three types of life cycles: annual, periodical, proto-periodical.

May 12, 2022

Chremistica ribhoi, the World Cup Cicada, is emerging!

Filed under: Chremistica | Cryptotympanini | India | Periodical — Tags: — Dan @ 4:33 am

Chremistica ribhoi, aka Niangtasar and the World Cup Cicada, is emerging! Chremistica ribhoi is a periodical cicada that lives in India (state of Meghalaya) and emerges every four years. It is nicknamed the World Cup cicada because it emerges the same year as the World Cup soccer/football sports event.

Sudhanya Ray Hajong sent us the following photos and text describing the event:

A molted, teneral (soft) male:
a newly emerged teneral adult of C.ribhoi

The worldcup cicada emergence May 2022

The four year long wait is over for the young and old of the villagers of Saiden village in the
northeastern Indian state of Meghalaya, and if you happen to be around you not fail to
notice the excitement among the young and old, men and women here in Saiden . It is
beginning of May and the World cup cicada or ‘Niangtaser’ as is called by the Bhoi
community has started emerging. The forest of Iewsier located on this a remote corner of
the world is suddenly buzzing with the calls of thousands of ‘Niangtaser’ or Chremistica
ribhoi Hajong & Yaakop, 2013.

Come sunset, one will see young children, boys and girls, and even aged man and
women with a bag carried around their shoulder, a piece of bamboo cane hung by tread
around their neck and a torch in hand – they are conversing in excitement and flocking in
small groups proceeding on trails taking them inside the forest. The atmosphere is almost
festive and everyone is so friendly and smiling expecting eagerly to seek out and pick as
many ‘ Niangtaser’ as possible, to be brought back home for delicious preparation and to
be pickles and dried and kept for months to relish the unique taste that Mother nature has
bestowed.

The nymphs with their powerful forelegs silently dig over ground in the stillness of the
night and one can see the still freshly emerged nymphs covered in soil crawling sluggishly
seeking anything upright to cling upward until they can secure themself on the surface with
their claws, the slow process then begins, with the splitting of the thoracic integument
along the mid dorsal line, the adult gradually pushes out of the shell until they are fully
outside the old exuviae, the wings which were crumpled slowly unfold and the now fully
emerged teneral adult with their fully spread-out wings appear as a beautiful greenish
ethereal glow under the soft light of our headlamps.

Come daylight and the adults now in hundreds and thousands fly out resting in clusters on
tips of twigs and branches of the several bamboos, one would hear the incessant and
almost whistling crescendo of calls of the ‘Niangtaser’ with the rising heat of the sun if you
are just below these trees one would feel the rain like shower drizzling earthward from the
hundreds of adults peeing from the tree tops.

This year though the fear of a fresh COVID resurgence had dampened the spirit of the
villagers of Siden , as no ‘Niangtaser’ Festival could be organised with much fanfare like
the previous emergence years.

The Folklore of the Bhoi people – A sick old women who was transformed into the
peeing ‘Niangtsers’

Long ago as the Bhoi Khasis of Siden village traditionally believed that, there lived an old
women who suddenly fell sick with a strange stomach ailment that made her to go
frequently to calls of nature for her frequent watery discharge. Fearing that her ailment
would spread among the villagers, the village elders finally decided that she was to taken
to the forest and kept separated alone in a bamboo thatch until she could get herself
cured. It is said that, when the villagers next morning went to check on her with food and
water, they were surprised to find they she had strangely vanished, but surprisingly they
found thousands of the cicadas everywhere on the branches of the trees and strangely all
of them were found to be discharging some kind of fluid from the rear of their abdomen.
They were thus lead to believe that the forest sprit feeling pity on her had transformed the
old sick women into thousands of the cicadas, and to this day the old women appear
around the forest of Iewsier in the form of thousands of ‘Niangtasers’ and even now she
still suffers from her stomach ailment and pass frequent watery discharges from the top of
trees.

Will the ‘Niangtaser’ come again and again, after every four years, few village the elders
who narrates how once upon a time ‘Niangtaser were plentiful and widespread; and how
now things have changed and how forest were gone along with many areas from were
‘Niangtaser’ are no more found. They are saddened by this development and tells us that
the number of ‘Niangtaser’is dwindling, forest patches where large number of them
emerges are no longer there, in its place farmlands and houses had appeared, they fear it
is not far when the folklore and the ‘Niangtaser’ that is so relished will vanish and only
remain a folklore of the distant past. The unique gift of mother nature may no longer be
there if we do not check our greed and our want for more and more land and more
material wealth. Village elders like Bah Kret Sungkli caution us that if we do not part our
greedy ways we may have to lose this wonderful gift of mother nature.

By Sudhanya Ray Hajong with able field assistance from my dear Rodeson Thangkiew,
who was inspired by ‘Niangtaser’ and to take up his PhD in cicadas.

A poem by Sudhanya Ray Hajong:
Niangtaser poem

Two nymphs that have emerged from the ground:
nymphs of C.ribhoi just emerges and covered with soil

A molting adult:
emerging adult

A molting adult:
side view of teneral adult with a termite attracted to our headlamp

A molting adult:
teneral adult in process of emergence

May 8, 2022

Magicicada stragglers found in 2022

Filed under: Magicicada | Periodical Stragglers — Dan @ 7:26 am

Gene Kristsky let us know that people are finding Magicada stragglers and reporting them on iNaturalist. It looks like most of the stragglers are in the Brood XIX area currently, but as temperatures warm, we might see others from other Broods.

Be on the lookout in 2022 (or any year)! Any place you see a red dot is a possibility. Even central Massachusettes (former home of Brood XI) and Ontario — maybe so.

Possbile Straggler Locations

Straggler-related facts:

What is a Magicicada:
A Magicicada is a genus of cicada that lives in the United States that typically emerges in 17 or 13-year cycles depending on the species.

They look like this:
Brood X header

What is a Brood:
A Brood is a numbered group of Magicicada cicadas that emerge in a specific series of years.
Example: Brood X (X is the Roman numeral for 10) emerges every 17 years, i.e. 2021, 2038, 2055, etc.

What is a Straggler:
A Straggler is a Magicicada that emerges earlier or later than anticipated.
Example: If a Brood XIX (13-year, next due in 2024) cicada emerges in 2022, we can say it is a straggler that emerged 2 years early.
Stragglers that emerge earlier than expected have also been called “precursors” (Marlatt 1898). I also call them “pioneers”.

January 30, 2022

Cicada Life Cycle

Filed under: Life Cycle — Dan @ 12:57 pm

Cicada Life Cycle
Top row, left to right: cicada egg (Roy Troutman), freshly hatched nymph (Roy Troutman), second and third instar nymphs (Elias Bonaros). Bottom row, left to right: fourth instar nymph, teneral adult, adult. (Cicada Mania).

Cicadas begin life as a rice-shaped egg, which the female deposits in a groove she makes in a tree limb, using her ovipositor. The groove provides shelter and exposes the tree fluids, which the young cicadas feed on. These grooves can kill small branches. When the branches die and the leaves turn brown, it is called flagging.

Once the cicada hatches from the egg it will begin to feed on the tree fluids. At this point, it looks like a termite or small white ant. Once the young cicada is ready, it crawls from the groove and falls to the ground where it will dig until it finds roots to feed on. It will typically start with smaller grass roots and work its way up to the roots of its host tree. The cicada will stay underground from 2 to 17 years depending on the species. Cicadas are active underground, tunneling, and feeding, and not sleeping or hibernating as commonly thought. Cicadas go through multiple phases, called instars, while underground. Magicicada have five instars.

After the long 2 to 17 years, cicadas emerge from the ground as nymphs. Nymphs climb the nearest available vertical surface (usually a plant) and begin to shed their nymph exoskeleton. Free of their old skin, their wings will inflate with fluid (haemolymph) and their adult skin will harden (sclerotize). Once their new wings and body are ready, they can begin their brief adult life.

Adult cicadas, also called imagoes, spend their time in trees looking for a mate. Males sing (or otherwise vibrate the air or their surroundings), females respond, mating begins, and the cycle of life begins again.

Different Types of Cicada Life Cycles

Filed under: Life Cycle — Dan @ 12:22 pm

There are three types of cicada life cycles:

Annual: Cicada species with annual life cycles emerge every year, for example, Swamp Cicadas (Neotibicen tibicen) emerge every year in the United States, and Green Grocers (Cyclochila australasiae) emerge every year in Australia.

Periodical: Cicadas species with periodical life cycles emerge together after long periods of time, for example, Magicicada septendecim will emerge every 17 years (Find out where they’ll emerge next). Magicicada periodical cicadas are organized into Broods, which correspond to the series of years in which they will emerge. Only periodical cicadas are organized by Roman-numeral Broods.

Protoperiodical: Cicada species with protoperiodical life cycles might emerge every year, but every so many years they emerge together in large numbers, like certain Okanagana depending on factors like proximity to other species and rainfall accumulations (Chatfield-Taylor 2020).

January 10, 2022

Meanwhile… Brood I

Filed under: Brood I | Periodical — Dan @ 9:44 pm

If you’re a Brood I cicada, you’re probably instar 4.

10 years ago meme (which is a thing in January of 2022):
10 year meme

October 29, 2021

The next 17 years of periodical cicadas

Filed under: Periodical | Periodical Stragglers — Dan @ 7:48 pm

In 2021, Brood X emerged in Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York (not yet extinct), Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington D.C. But, what about the next 17 years?

Top, Left to Right: cicada egg, freshly hatched nymph, second and third instar nymphs. Bottom, Left to Right: fourth instar nymph, teneral adult, adult. (Photos by Roy Troutman and Elias Bonaros).
Some stages of a Magicicada’s life cycle: Top, Left to Right: cicada egg (Troutman), freshly hatched nymph (Troutman), second and third instar nymphs (Bonaros). Bottom, Left to Right: fourth instar nymph, teneral adult, adult. (Mozgai).

Here’s a list of periodical cicada emergences for the next seventeen years, including Magicicada in the United States, Chremistica ribhoi in India, and Raiateana knowlesi in Fiji.

2022: World Cup World Cup Cicada time

No Magicicada broods will emerge. Possible undocumented spurious broods and stragglers.

The World Cup Cicada, Chremistica ribhoi, will emerge in India. Learn more about Chremistica ribhoi which has a 4-year cycle that synchronizes with the football/soccer World Cup.

2023: the Quiet Year

No Magicicada broods will emerge. Possible undocumented spurious broods and stragglers.

Enjoy your local annual cicada species.

2024: the Big Year

Two Magicicada Broods, Brood XIII and Brood XIX (the Great Southern Brood) will emerge in the United States. Brood XIII has a 17-year cycle and is found in Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Brood XIX has a 13-year cycle and is found in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. That’s 19 states of periodical cicadas!

Possible undocumented spurious broods and stragglers elsewhere as well.

2025: Brood XIV and the Nanai in Fiji

17-year Magicicada Brood XIV will emerge is found in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.

Possible undocumented spurious Magicicada broods and stragglers elsewhere as well. Most likely 4-year precursors from Brood I.

A periodical cicada with an 8-year cycle will emerge in Fiji: the Nanai aka Raiateana knowlesi.

2026: Stragglers and World Cup

Some 4-year precursors/stragglers from Brood II, will “make a buzz” in the news as Brood II emerges in heavily populated areas of New Jersey and Staten Island New York. Possible undocumented spurious Magicicada broods and stragglers elsewhere as well.

The World Cup Cicada, Chremistica ribhoi, will emerge in India again. Learn more about Chremistica ribhoi. World Cup

2027: super-cool Brood 22

13-year Magicicada Brood XXII will emerge in Ohio, Kentucky, Lousiana, and Mississippi.

Some Brood III straggersvwill emerge in Iowa, Illnois, and Missouri. Possible undocumented spurious Magicicada broods and stragglers elsewhere as well.

2028: The Mississippi Valley Brood

13-year Magicicada Brood XXIII, the Mississippi Valley Brood, will emerge in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Lousiana, Missouri, Mississippi, and Tennessee.

Some Brood IV stragglers will emerge in Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Texas.

2029: The Shenandoah Valley Brood

17-year Magicicada Brood I, aka the Shenandoah Valley Brood, will emerge in Tennesee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

Some Brood V stragglers will emerge in Long Island, New York, western Maryland, eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, most of West Virginia, and northern Virginia. Possible undocumented spurious broods and stragglers elsewhere.

2030: The Lesser Eastern Brood

17-year Magicicada Brood II, the Lesser Eastern Brood, will emerge in Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Oklahoma, Pennslyvania, and Virginia. This brood gets a lot of attention because it emerges in heavily-populated New Jersey and Staten Island New York.

Some Brood VI stragglers will emerge in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Oklahoma and Ohio. Possible undocumented spurious broods and stragglers elsewhere.

The World Cup Cicada, Chremistica ribhoi, will emerge in India. World Cup

2031: The Iowan Brood

17-year Magicicada Brood III, the Iowan Brood, will emerge in Iowa, Illnois, and Missouri.

Some Brood VII stragglers will emerge in Onondaga County, New York. Possible undocumented spurious broods and stragglers elsewhere.

2032: The Kansan Brood

17-year Magicicada Brood IV, the Kansan Brood, will emerge in Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Texas.

Some Brood VIII stragglers will emerge in eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, Hancock county West Virginia, and part of Oklahoma. Possible undocumented spurious broods and stragglers elsewhere.

2033: fantastic Brood 5 and the Nanai.

17-year Magicicada Brood V will emerge in Long Island, New York, western Maryland, eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, most of West Virginia, and northern Virginia.

Some Brood IX stragglers will emerge in North Carolina, Virginia and West Virginia. Possible undocumented spurious broods and stragglers elsewhere.

The Nanai aka Raiateana knowlesi will emerge in Fiji.

2034: splendid Brood 6, some Brood 10 stragglers, and the World Cup Cicada

17-year Magicicada Brood VI will emerge in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Oklahoma, Ohio, and maybe New York (and maybe Oklahoma).

Some Brood X stragglers will emerge, typically in areas with dense populations like Princeton, NJ. Possible undocumented spurious broods and stragglers elsewhere.

The World Cup Cicada, Chremistica ribhoi, will emerge in India. World Cup

Dan is 65 and can retire. But retire from Cicadas?! Never!

2035: The Onondaga Brood

17-year Magicicada Brood VII will emerge in Onondaga County, New York.

Possible undocumented spurious broods and stragglers elsewhere.

2036: great Brood 8

17-year Magicicada Brood VIII will emerge in eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, Hancock county West Virginia, and part of Oklahoma.

Possible undocumented spurious broods and stragglers elsewhere.

2037: Brood 9, Brood 19 and some Brood 13 stragglers

17-year Magicicada Brood IX will emerge in North Carolina, Virginia and West Virginia.

Brood XIX has a 13-year cycle and is found in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.

Some Brood XIII stragglers will emerge in Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois and Indiana. Possible undocumented spurious broods and stragglers elsewhere.

2038: the Great Eastern Brood X is Back!

17-year Magicicada Brood X cicadas will emerge in Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York (not yet extinct), Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington D.C.

Some Brood XIV stragglers will emerge 4 years early in Georgia, Kentucky, Indiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Possible undocumented spurious broods and stragglers elsewhere.

The World Cup Cicada, Chremistica ribhoi, will emerge in India. World Cup

July 7, 2021

Brood X Magicicada photos by Jim Occi taken in Princeton, set 6

Filed under: Brood X | Jim Occi | Magicicada | Periodical — Dan @ 4:33 am

Brood X Magicicada photos by Jim Occi taken in Princeton, set 6. 2021.

Teneral Magicicada:
Teneral Magicicada

Teneral Magicicada:
Teneral Magicicada

Magicicada septendecim that failed to completely exit its exuvia before its body hardened:
Magicicada Jim Occi

Magicicada septendecim that failed to completely exit its exuvia before its body hardened:
Magicicada Jim Occi

A pair of Magicicada septendecim:
A pair of Magicicada Jim Occi

More from Jim Occi:

Brood X Magicicada photos by Jim Occi taken in Princeton, set 5

Filed under: Brood X | Jim Occi | Magicicada | Periodical — Dan @ 4:27 am

Brood X Magicicada photos by Jim Occi taken in Princeton, set 5. 2021.

Molting Magicicada:
Molting Magicicada

Teneral Magicicada:
Teneral Magicicada

Teneral Magicicada:
Teneral Magicicada

Teneral Magicicada expanding wings:
Teneral Magicicada

Adult Magicicada with crumpled wings:
Adult Magicicada with crumpled wings

More from Jim Occi:

Brood X Magicicada photos by Jim Occi taken in Princeton, set 4

Filed under: Brood X | Jim Occi | Magicicada | Periodical — Dan @ 4:22 am

Brood X Magicicada photos by Jim Occi taken in Princeton, set 4. 2021.

A Rutgers cap in Princeton (one day Rutgers needs to get that cannon back).
R

Magicicada septendecim with exposed tymbal:
Exposed tymbal

A Magicicada with its abdomen wrecked by Massospora fungus.
Magicicada wrecked by Massospora

Magicicada exit holes:
Magicicada holes by Jim Occi

A pair of Magicicada septendecim:
A pair of Magicicada

More from Jim Occi:

Brood X Magicicada photos by Jim Occi taken in Princeton, set 3

Filed under: Brood X | Jim Occi | Magicicada | Periodical — Tags: — Dan @ 4:16 am

Brood X Magicicada photos by Jim Occi taken in Princeton, set 3. 2021.

Magicicada septendecim on finger:
Perched on finger

Teneral, newly molted Magicicada:
Teneral Magicicada

Magicicada septendecim perched on a plant stalk:
Magicicada on plant Jim Occi

A mass of Magicicada skins:
A mass of exuvia by Jim Occi

Magicicada septendecim on a leaf:
Magicicada on leaf

More from Jim:

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