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November 12, 2018

Majeorona bovilla Distant, 1905

Majeorona bovilla Distant, 1905 is a cicada found in Brazil.

Scientific classification:
Family: Cicadidae
SubFamily: Cicadinae
Tribe: Fidicinini
SubTribe: Guyalnina
Genera: Majeorona
Species: Majeorona bovilla Distant, 1905

Majeorona genus description by W. L. Distant:

Characters. — Head (including eyes) considerably broader than base of mesonotum, eves porrect, more or less stylate, length of head about equal to half its breadth between eyes, and distinctly shorter than pronotum which is about equal in length to mesonotum; abdomen a little shorter than space between apex of head and base of cruciform elevation, tympanal coverings in male with their inner margins strongly concave; metasternal plate well developed, centrally longitudinally impressed and anteriorly produced on each side; rostrum reaching the posterior coxae; anterior femora strongly spined beneath; opercula in male small, transverse, not extending beyond base of abdomen, tegmina about two and a half times as long as broad, with eight apical areas and the basal cell about as long as broad.

References:

  1. The illustration and description comes from the journal Genera Insectorum, and a specific article from 1914 by W. L. Distant titled Homoptera. Fam. Cicadidae, Subfam, Gaeaninae. Read it on the Biodiversity Heritage Library website.
  2. Species name verification comes from Allen Sanborn’s Catalogue of the Cicadoidea (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha).

November 10, 2018

Fidicinoides sericans (Stål, 1854)

Fidicinoides sericans (Stål, 1854) is a cicada found in Brazil.

Its name changed when it was moved from the Fidicina Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843 genera, to the Fidicinoides Boulard & Martinelli, 1996 genera.

Scientific classification:
Family: Cicadidae
SubFamily: Cicadinae
Tribe: Fidicinini
SubTribe: Fidicinina
Genera: Fidicinoides
Species: Fidicinoides sericans (Stål, 1854)

Fidicinoides sericans (Stål, 1854)
The image says Fidicina sericans, but the newer name of theis cicada is Fidicinoides sericans.

References:

  1. The illustration and description comes from the journal Genera Insectorum, and a specific article from 1914 by W. L. Distant titled Homoptera. Fam. Cicadidae, Subfam, Gaeaninae. Read it on the Biodiversity Heritage Library website.
  2. Species name verification comes from Allen Sanborn’s Catalogue of the Cicadoidea (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha).

November 1, 2018

Orialella boliviana (Distant, 1904)

Orialella boliviana (Distant, 1904) was formerly known as Oria boliviana. Yes, its name has changed since 1913. The genus Oria still exists.

It is found in Bolivia and Brazil.

Scientific classification:
Family: Cicadidae
SubFamily: Cicadinae
Tribe: Cryptotympanini
SubTribe: Cryptotympanina
Genera: Orialella
Species: Orialella boliviana (Distant, 1904)

Orialella boliviana (Distant, 1904)
The image says Oria boliviana, but the newest name of this cicada is Orialella boliviana.

References:

  1. The illustration and genus description comes from the journal Genera Insectorum, and a specific article from 1913 by W. L. Distant titled Homoptera. Fam. Cicadidae, Subfam, Cicadinae. Read it on the Biodiversity Heritage Library website.
  2. Current species name verified using Allen Sanborn’s Catalogue of the Cicadoidea (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha).

September 22, 2018

Hemisciera maculipennis (de Laporte, 1832)

I’m starting a new series on this blog called “has its name changed?” I’m looking through old documents and papers and using modern documents like Allen Sanborn’s Catalogue of the Cicadoidea (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) to check. Cicada names change from time to time, based on new discoveries by the modern cicada research/science community, and sometimes to fix grammar (like gender agreement between genus and species).

This cicada is Hemisciera maculipennis (de Laporte, 1832), also known as the “stop and go” or “stop light” cicada because of the red and green color of its wings. If you want to see one in real life, they exist in Central and South America, specifically Panama, Ecuador, Brazil, and adjacent nations. If you’re in New York and you want to see one, they have a few in the collection at the Staten Island Museum — last time I was there, there was a faded one in a display by the door (UV rays fade cicada specimen colors).

Scientific classification:
Family: Cicadidae
SubFamily: Cicadinae
Tribe: Piccinini
Sub Tribe: Guyana
Genera: Hemisciera
Species: Hemisciera maculipennis (de Laporte, 1832)

And, since 1914 at least, its name has not changed.

Hemisciera maculipennis (de Laporte, 1832)

Hemisciera Amyot & Serville genus description by W. L. Distant:

Characters. — Head (including eyes) considerably broader than base of mesonotum, eves porrect, more or less stylate, length of head about equal to half its breadth between eyes, and distinctly shorter than pronotum which is about equal in length to mesonotum; abdomen a little shorter than space between apex of head and base of cruciform elevation, tympanal coverings in male with their inner margins strongly concave; metasternal plate well developed, centrally longitudinally impressed and anteriorly produced on each side; rostrum reaching the posterior coxae; anterior femora strongly spined beneath; opercula in male small, transverse, not extending beyond base of abdomen, tegmina about two and a half times as long as broad, with eight apical areas and the basal cell about as long as broad.

References:

  1. The illustration comes from the journal Genera Insectorum, and a specific article from 1914 by W. L. Distant titled Homoptera. Fam. Cicadidae, Subfam, Gaeaninae. Read it on the Biodiversity Heritage Library website.
  2. Species name information/verification comes from Allen Sanborn’s Catalogue of the Cicadoidea (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha).

September 18, 2018

Coffee and Cicadas

Filed under: Agriculture,Brazil,Fidicinoides,Ovipositing,Quesada — Dan @ 8:51 pm

Instarbucks

When I think of cicadas I rarely think of them as an agricultural pest, mostly because I’m located in the U.S. where they’re not quite a menace to agriculture as other creatures can be, like aphids or the dreaded, invasive Spotted Lanternfly. Periodical cicadas can be a pest to fruit trees1 — tip: don’t plant an orchard where periodical cicadas live. Whenever there is an emergence of periodical cicadas some of the weaker, ornamental or fruit trees will be lost to damage from ovipositing (egg laying). In these cases, the cicadas are impacting non-native trees introduced into America — apples, pears, and peaches are originally from Asia — and these trees did not evolve to withstand cicadas and their root-sucking, egg-laying ways. I try to be empathetic to owners of weak trees and I go into some detail in my article Will the cicadas kill my trees, shrubs or flowers. Cicada lawyer recommends that I don’t give too much advice in this area.

Cicada Lawyer
Cicada Laywer says “don’t give advice you aren’t willing to back up in court, and we need to discuss your ‘Instarbucks logo’.”

Outside the U.S., cicadas can have more of an impact to agriculture. In Australia, the Brown sugarcane cicada (Cicadetta crucifera), Green cicada (C. multifascia), and Yellow sugarcane cicada (Parnkalla muelleri) suck on sugar plant roots when they’re nymphs, which can cause poor or failed ratoons2. Also in Australia, the Bladder Cicada is said to cause severe damage to olive trees when they oviposit (lay eggs in branches)3.

I was researching the cicadas of Brazil, trying to ID a cicada someone emailed me. One thing I noticed was a lot of papers about cicadas mention coffee (cafeeiro). Papers have names like, “Description and key to the fifth-instars of some Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) associated with coffee plants in Brazil”4, or “Description of new cicada species associated with the coffee plant and an identification key for the species of Fidicinoides (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from Brazil”5. These documents often contain wonderful cicada information, illustrations, and photos, just the sort of stuff I’m looking for.

Coffee and cicadas. Cafeeiro e cigarras. This association piqued my interest because I am both a huge fan of cicadas and coffee. Both are addictions, and if I tried to quit either, it would be painful (I’ve tried — lots of headaches). I enjoy cicadas as a hobby, and coffee as a stimulant and treat. I’ve even thought of opening a cafe called “Instarbucks” (that is a joke for entomologists).

Unfortunately, the association between coffee and cicadas is that cicadas are pests of the coffee plant. As nymphs, they suck the xylem roots of the coffee plant, and may occasionally cause damage4. Of course, coffee farms will be none too pleased about possible damage to their cash crops, so a lot of research goes into cicadas and their relationship to the coffee plant. Coffee is not native to Brazil, it originates from Ethiopia, and so it’s another non-native species of plant, grown for agricultural reasons, that is impacted by a native species of cicada. I’m sensing a pattern here. The unfortunate (for cicadas) reality is that folks will use information about the cicadas to control them, rather than risk damage to their coffee crops.

I’ll use the rest of this article to discuss coffee + cicada papers and some highlights within.

Description and key to the fifth-instars of some Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) associated with coffee plants in Brazil4:

This paper is interesting as it describes and visually illustrates the physical characteristics of each instar (phase) of the cicadas development during their nymph stage. It covers these cicadas: Dorisiana drewseni (Stål) Dorisiana viridis (Olivier), Fidicina mannifera (Fabricius), Fidicinoides pronoe (Walker) and Carineta fasciculata (Germar). Related to coffee, these researchers are providing the knowledge that allows folks to identify fifth-instar nymphs, for the purpose of determining the extent of a plant’s cicada infestation4.

Oviposition of Quesada gigas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) in coffee plants.6:

This paper describes and visually illustrates the ovipositing behavior of Quesada gigas (the Giant Cicada). Related to coffee — other than the fact that Q. gigas will lay their eggs in the coffee’s tree branches — this paper provides ideas for preventing the egg-laying behavior, such as the removal of dry branches from “the upper third of the coffee plant, which is the preferred egg-laying location”6.

Nice photo of the bearly 2mm long cicada eggs — very small for a very large cicada.

Description of the Nymphs of Quesada gigas (Olivier) (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) Associated with Coffee Plants6:

Unfortunately, I cannot read Portuguese, so I cannot read this article. That said, the illustrations of the Quesada gigas nymphs (ninfas) contained within are wonderful.

Description of new cicada species associated with the coffee plant and an identification key for the species of Fidicinoides (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from Brazil7:

This paper describes a new cicada, Fidicinoides sarutaiensis Santos, Martinelli & Maccagnan sp. n, and provides information, illustrations and photos to help identify this cicada and others belonging to the genus Fidicinoides, including F. opalina, F. sericans, F. pauliensis, F. picea, F. pronoe, F. distanti, F. brisa, F. rosabasalae, F. brunnea, F. besti, F. sucinalae, F. saccifera, F. jauffretti and F. pseudethelae. Related to coffee, these cicadas feed from the xylem roots of coffee plants.7

This paper includes wonderful photos of key parts of these cicadas’ anatomy, which is very helpful for identifying them.

Instarbucks

There are many more papers about cicadas that appreciate coffee plants as much as you do. I’ll leave it up to you to research further.

If I had to choose, I’d choose cicadas over coffee. Which would you choose?

Sources:

  1. Tree Fruit Insect Pest – Periodical Cicada
  2. Peter Samson, Nader Sallam, Keith Chandler. (2013). Pests of Australian Sugarcane.
  3. Spooner-Hart, Robert & Tesoriero, L & Hall, Barbara. (2018). Field Guide to Olive Pests, Diseases and Disorders in Australia.
  4. DMACCAGNAN, DHB and MARTINELLI, NM. Description and key to the fifth-instars of some Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) associated with coffee plants in Brazil. Neotrop. entomol. [online]. 2011, vol.40, n.4 [cited 2018-09-18], pp.445-451. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1519-566X2011000400006&lng=en&nrm=iso. ISSN 1519-566X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2011000400006.
  5. Santos RS, Martinelli NM, Maccagnan DHB, Sanborn AF, Ribeiro R (2010) Description of new cicada species associated with the coffee plant and an identification key for the species of Fidicinoides (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from Brazil. Zootaxa, 2602: 48-56.
  6. DECARO JUNIOR, SERGIO T; MARTINELLI, NILZA M; MACCAGNAN, DOUGLAS H. B. and RIBEIRO, EDUARDO S.. Oviposition of Quesada gigas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) in coffee plants. Rev. Colomb. Entomol. [online]. 2012, vol.38, n.1 [cited 2018-09-18], pp.1-5. Available from: http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0120-04882012000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso. ISSN 0120-0488.
  7. DHB Maccagnan, NM Martinelli. Descrição das ninfas de Quesada gigas (Olivier)(Hemiptera: Cicadidae) associadas ao cafeeiro. Neotropical Entomology, 2004 – SciELO Brasil.
  8. SANTOS RS, MARTINELLI NM, MACCAGNAN DHB, SANBORN AF,RIBEIRO R. Description of new cicada species associated with the coffee plant and an identification key for the species of Fidicinoides (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from Brazil. Zootaxa, 2010.

May 12, 2018

Cicadas of South America

There are far more species in South America than you’ll find on this page, but these are among the most well known.

Carineta Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843

Carineta diardi
Carineta diardi (Guérin-Menéville, 1829)

Chonosia Distant, 1905

Fidicina Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843

Fidicina mannifera
Fidicina mannifera (Fabricius, 1803)

Hemisciera Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843

Majeorona Distant, 1905

Majeorona aper
Majeorona aper (Walker, 1850)

Quesada Distant, 1905

Quesada gigas
Quesada gigas (Olivier, 1790)

Zammara Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843

Zammara_smaragdina_sm
Zammara smaragdina Walker, 1850

Tettigades Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843

Blog posts by country:

Links for further research:

If you’re researching Cicadas in the Neotropic ecozone, which is Central and South America, here are some resources that will help you:

1) Follow Andreas Kay’s Flickr feed. He posts many excellent cicada photos from Ecuador. Many cicadas found in Ecuador are not endemic, so the cicadas you see in Andreas’ Flickr feed should be found in adjacent countries.

2) Visit Cigarras do Brasil – Brazilian Cicadas for photos and information about the cicadas of Brazil.

3) Read Jacobi (1907) “Homoptera Andina”. (Not sure where to find it – maybe eBay).

4) Read: Insecta. Rhynchota. Hemiptera-Homoptera. Volume I (1881-1905) by W. L. Distant and W. W. Fowler. It is available online. Here is a sample from that book:

Insecta. Rhynchota. Hemiptera-Homoptera. Volume I (1881-1905) by W. L. Distant and W. W. Fowler

5) Search for papers written by Allen F. Sanborn. Here is how to search for cicada research papers online.

6) Use ITIS to traverse cicada species names and get listings of papers about the cicada — then search for the cicada names and papers.

5) Many photos and sound files of Paraguayan cicadas.

Thanks again to David Emery!

Click the images for larger versions, the species name and the name of the photographer.

November 8, 2012

Brazil Cicada Identification Challenge, Part 2

Filed under: Brazil,Identify — Dan @ 9:43 pm

Here is part 2. Jairo of Cigarras do Brasil – Brazilian Cicadas asked for our help to identify some unknown cicada species from Brazil. The following photographs feature cicadas from Brazil we want to identify. We are hoping folks in the cicada research community can help.

Note: All of these cicadas were photographed at Paraibuna, São Paulo. This town is close to the Paraíba Valley (Vale do Paraíba), and to São José dos Campos and Caçapava.

1) Possibly an Ariasa sp. (about 1/2 inch (1,3cm))


Need identification. Possibly an Ariasa sp. (Nov, 2012)

2) Possibly a Quesada sodalis (about 1 1/2 inch (4cm))


Need identification. Possibly a Quesada sodalis. (Nov, 2012)

Unknown Cicada

Cicadas 3, 4 and 5 were identified by David Emery as Fidicinoides picea (Walker, 1850). Learn more about Fidicnoides picea.

3) Identified: Fidicnoides picea.


Need identification. Possibly a Fidicnoides picea. (Nov, 2012)

4) Identified: Fidicnoides picea.


Need identification. Possibly a Fidicnoides picea. (Nov, 2012)

5) Identified: Fidicnoides picea.


Need identification. Possibly a Fidicnoides picea. (Nov, 2012)

Brazil Cicada Identification Challenge, Part 1

Filed under: Brazil,Identify,Sounds,Video — Dan @ 9:19 pm

Jairo of Cigarras do Brasil – Brazilian Cicadas asked for our help to identify some unknown cicada species from Brazil. The following videos feature cicada song belonging to the cicadas we want to identify. We are hoping folks in the cicada research community can help.

Note: All of these cicadas were photographed at Paraibuna, São Paulo. This town is close to the Paraíba Valley (Vale do Paraíba), and to São José dos Campos and Caçapava.

The first cicada Unknown Cicada Song from Brazil sounds like a siren from a science fiction movie:

The second video Unknown cicada song (along with Q. gigas) – Need identification features a Quesada gigas and another cicada. It’s the other cicada we need to identify.

As a reference, here is the song of the Quesada gigas:

View all cicada identification challenges.

November 7, 2011

Another Brazilian Cicada ID challenge

Filed under: Brazil,Identify — Dan @ 5:23 pm

Jairo from Cigarras do Brasil – Brazilian Cicadas website returns with more cicadas from Brazil for you to identify. Click each photo to arrive at larger versions of the image.

Cicada One

Cicada Three - 5553409171_9879d65083_b

Cicada Two

Cicada Three - 6261346967_fab2a2bf32_b

Cicada Three

Cicada Two - DSC02724

Cicada One - DSC02720

March 10, 2011

More Cicadas from Brazil to ID

Filed under: Brazil,Video — Dan @ 10:37 am

A few more mystery cicadas from Jairo from the Cigarras do Brasil – Brazilian Cicadas website. These cicadas are from Brazil. This time with videos featuring their song.

Cicada A:

“Now i’m sending you a video of a strange cicada song, very highly pitched, and two blurry photos of it. Sorry i couldn’t take better pictures (they’re very small and hard to catch), but i hope it can help you.
As far as i could see, this cicada seems to belong to the genus Taphura. I saw some cicadas of this genus and it really loks like them (if only the pictures showed that…). They have a green head and mesonotum, but the abdomen has a different color, probably beige or brown. Their belly seem to be white, with beige legs. Their song starts with clicks from a male, then another male responds to it, and then all males in the place sing together a very fast buzz. Probably i recorded here their “alarm call”, to warn the others about the presence of a stranger, ’cause their song was very erratic.”

Image of this cicada #1 and image of this cicada #2.

Cicada B:

“This one really gets me intrigued! Never saw the cicada (that’s why i don’t have pics), but i’ve heard it a lot! Very low sound, this song is a succession of short calls (ki-ki-ki-ki). Males singing together seem to be duelling. All i can say is it seems to be from genus Dorisiana, but without pictures i cannot prove this.
This one is really a challenge.”

Cicada C:

“I made this recording in October 5th 2010 (spring), and you can hear the second part of a cicada song (i couldn’t record the first part). The song starts with a slow sequence of short calls (ki-ki-ki), and then it accelerates and becomes a fast sequence of zizizi sounds. People will say that it sounds like Fidicina mannifera or F. torresi, but i know these two species enough to say that it wasn’t any of them, along with the fact that they don’t sing in trees as high as the one in the footage. Could it be Majeorona aper??? They appear in springtime, and i don’t know their song!”

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