Cicada Mania

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April 18, 2020

Davis’ Key to Species of the Genus Tibicen found in the Southeastern United States

I’ve been updating the North American cicada pages on this site, and I’ve been including snippets (and some chunks) from William T. Davis’ cicada papers from the early 1900s. They’re in the public domain and excellent resources.

Davis provided a key of cicadas that belong to the then genus Tibicen in his 1918 article Mississippi Cicadas, with a Key to the Species of the Southeastern United States from volume 26 of the Journal of The New York Entomological Society. Download it from archive.org.

Mississippi Cicadas

Since 1918, genus and some species names have changed, so I’m going to present the key here, with highlighted notes on the updated names + images (when I have them). I’ll try to replicate the formatting of the original document as best I can.

Here goes…

Key to Species of the Genus Tibicen found in the Southeastern United States.

Note: the cicadas in the key are now organized in three genera: Neotibicen (A B), Megatibicen (A BB), and Diceroprocta (AA).

A. Large, heavy bodied species; head broad, uncus simple, and first cross vein in the fore wings starting from radius 3 far back, or about one third distant from base of first marginal cell.

     B. Uncus longer than broad. Black species with green or greenish markings and black area on the central part of the abdomen beneath, except in sayi [sayi = Neotibicen tibicen tibicen], and new variety of davisi [new variety of davisi = Neotibicen davisi harnedi].

Note: this group of cicadas (B) are now organized under the genus Neotibicen, not Tibicen.

         C. Hind margin of pronotum or collar, green or greenish.

             A narrow irregular area of black on the under side of the abdomen; opercula short and broad, and usually in the males an attenuated, pruinose stripe each side on the dorsum of segment three … pruinosa (Say). [pruinosa = Neotibicen pruinosus pruinosus].

N. pruinosus

Neotibicen pruinosus pruinosus
photo by Paul Krombholz.

             Dorsum of abdomen with the hind margin of the segments more or less brown and generally but a trace of pruinose stripe each side on segment three … pruinosa var. winnemanna (Davis) [pruinosa var. winnemanna = Neotibicen winnemanna].

Neotibicen winnemanna Garner NC
Photo of a Neotibicen winnemanna.

             Dorsum of abdomen shining black with a broad pruinose mark each side on segment three; blackened area on under side of abdomen more in the nature of an even stripe … pruinosa var latifasciata (Davis) [pruinosa var. latifasciata = Neotibicen latifasciatus].

             A longitudinal band of black on the under side of the abdomen, the opercula more lobate, and the margin of the front wings suddenly bent near the middle … linnei (Smith & Grossbeck) [linnei = Neotibicen linnei].

Neotibicen linnei
Photo of a Neotibicen linnei.

             A definite longitudinal band of black on the under side of the abdomen; head with the front rather prominent. Not a large species … canicularis (Harris) [canicularis = Neotibicen canicularis].

             An irregular band of black on the under side of the abdomen, head rounded in front; a rather small species … davisi (Smith & Grossbeck) [davisi = Neotibicen davisi davisi].

             Abdomen greenish centrally on under side, blackened area wanting, marginal cells of fore wings clouded … davisi var. harnedi new variety [davisi var. harnedi = Neotibicen davisi harnedi].

Krombholz Davisi compared
Photo by Paul Krombhold. Neotibicen davisi harnedi (left), Neotibicen davisi davisi (right).

        CC. Hind margin of pronotum or collar black or nearly so (except in sayi var. australis).

            D. Central area of the abdomen beneath black.

                 Opercula long and with the legs usually somewhat chest- nut colored ; the uncus when seen in profile forked, resembling the open mouth of a snake … similaris (Smith & Grossbeck) [similaris = Neotibicen similaris similaris].

                 Opercula much shorter, more rounded, and the black area on the under side of the abdomen in the nature of an even stripe. Uncus not forked … lyricen (De Geer) [lyricen = Neotibicen lyricen lyricen].

                 Blacker than typical lyricen, lacking the considerable amount of fulvous markings on the pronotum and mesonotum. A fulvous somewhat anchor-shaped mark centrally on the pronotum … lyricen var. engelhardti (Davis) [lyricen var. engelhardti = Neotibicen lyricen engelhardti].

            DD. Central area of the abdomen not black beneath, often pruinose, as well as the long opercula.

                 Collar black, often with a greenish spot each side near the outer angles. … sayi (Smith & Grossbeck) [sayi = Neotibicen tibicen tibicen].

                 Collar all green or nearly so, as well as the pronotum and mesonotum … sayi var. australis (Davis) [sayi = Neotibicen tibicen australis].

    BB. Uncus broad at the base, triangular in shape and generally about as broad as long. Opercula broad and rounded at the extremities no definite black area on the central part of the abdomen beneath, usually unicolorus.

Note: this group of cicadas (BB) are now organized under the genus Megatibicen, not Tibicen.

         E. Wings long and narrow, collar 2 mm. or less in breadth at central portions ; dorsum of abdomen black or nearly so.

             Basal cell of fore wings rusty in color, anal cells (mem- branes) of both pair of wings gray; usually expands no mm. or more … resonans (Walker) [resonans = Megatibicen resonans].

Neotibicen resonans photos by Joe Green from 2007, taken in Florida.
Photo of a Megatibicen resonans by Joe Green.

             Basal cell of fore wings often black or nearly so, anal cells of both pair of wings yellowish. Expands about 100 mm … figurata (Walker) [figurata = Megatibicen figuratus].

M. figurata
Photo of a Megatibicen figuratus by Paul Krombholz.

         EE. Wings broad, hind margin of the pronotum or collar green or greenish and more than 2 mm. broad.

             F. Anal cells or membranes at base of fore and hind wings gray.

                 Dorsal segments of the abdomen not margined with brown ; in fresh specimens the basal segments pruinose, also the terminal segments, leaving the four middle segments black. A large species expanding over no
mm. … auletes (Germar) [auletes = Megatibicen auletes].

Megatibicen auletes, the largest cicada in North America
Photo of a Megatibicen auletes.

             FF. Anal cells or membranes at base of fore and hind wings light orange, two prominent marks on the mesonotum resembling the Hebrew letter resh inverted.

                 Fore wings with the first and second cross veins clouded, and the dorsum of the abdomen brownish or brownish black … resh (Haldeman) [resh = Megatibicen resh].

Megatibicen resh molting adult
Photo of a Megatibicen resh.

                 Fore wings with the first and second cross veins but faintly or not at all clouded and the abdominal segments margined posteriorly with brown. In fresh specimens there is usually a median row of white spots on the dorsum of the abdomen … marginalis (Walker) [marginalis = Megatibicen pronotalis walkeri].

Megatibicen pronotalis photo by Roy Troutman, taken in Batavia, Ohio
Photo of a Megatibicen pronotalis walkeri by Roy Troutman.

AA. Small species ; wings starting from about the middle of the first marginal cell.

Note: this group of cicadas (AA) are now organized under the genus Diceroprocta, not Tibicen.

     G. First and second cross veins of fore wings clouded.

         Expanse of wings about 90 mm … biconica (Walker) [biconica = Diceroprocta biconica].

         Expanse of wings about 60 mm … olympusa (Walker) [olympusa = Diceroprocta olympusa].

Diceroprocta olympusa photos by Joe Green from 2007.
Photo of a Diceroprocta olympusa by Joe Green.

     GG. First and second cross veins of fore wings not clouded, wings clear throughout and expanding about 70 mm.

         Head rather large, front rounded, collar greenish or yellowish and contrasted in color rather sharply with the brown and black of pronotum and mesonotum … viridifascia (Walker) [viridifascia = Diceroprocta viridifascia].

         Head proportionately smaller than in the last ; front more pro- truding;- collar not so contrastingly colored and fore wings narrower … vitripennis (Say) [vitripennis = Diceroprocta vitripennis].


Diceroprocta vitripennis photo by Paul Krombholz.

and that’s all folks…

April 4, 2020

Diceroprocta vitripennis (Say, 1830) aka Green Winged Cicada

Filed under: Cryptotympanini,Diceroprocta,Thomas Say,United States — Tags: — Dan @ 7:26 am

Diceroprocta vitripennis (Say, 1830) aka Green Winged Cicada.

Diceroprocta vitripennis by Paul Krombholz
Photo by by Paul Krombholz.

â­˘ All Diceroprocta vitripennis images and information in cicadamania.com.

Song


Source: ©Insect Singers | Species: D. vitripennis

Video Playlist

Playlists contain multiple videos found on YouTube.

Name, Location and Description

Locations from Wm. T. Davis’ MISSISSIPPI CICADAS, WITH A KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES1

Prof. R. W. Harned has contributed the following note : “In regard to the distribution of Tibicen vitripennis I am inclined to think that this insect will only be found on low ground or in swampy places. This insect seems to be fairly prevalent in what is known as the delta section of Mississippi or the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta. This is the alluvial western part of the state. This species is also fairly abun- dant in* similar soils in Arkansas and Louisiana. The first time that I ever noticed this species was late in June, 1912. I found them quite numerous in fields at Palmyra Island, south of Vicksburg. I was surprised to find them coming out of the ground several hundred yards away from any perennial plants. They were also emerging from soil that had been under water a few weeks before. The spe- cies is quite common in the cotton fields of the delta.”
The distribution seems to be confined to the central United States. Specimens have been examined from Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkan- sas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska and Indiana.

Key to Species:

AA. Small species; uncus wish-bone shaped, and first cross view in the fore wings starting from about the middle of the first marginal cell.

GG. First and second cross veins of fore wings not clouded, wings clear throughout and expanding about 70 mm.

Head proportionately smaller than in the last; front more pro- truding;- collar not so contrastingly colored and fore wings narrower vitripennis (Say).

A visual description from Wm. T Davis’ NOTES ON CICADAS FROM THE UNITED STATES WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SEVERAL NEW SPECIES 2

What we have identified as this species is an insect with green in its coloring as mentioned by its describer; not entirely orange and black as in Cicada eugraphica from further west.

Classification:

Family: Cicadidae
Subfamily: Cicadinae
Tribe: Cryptotympanini
Subtribe: Cryptotympanina
Genus: Diceroprocta
Species: Diceroprocta vitripennis (Say, 1830)

List of sources

  1. Davis, W.T. 1919. MISSISSIPPI CICADAS, WITH A KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, Vol. XXVI, Nos. 3-4. Read on archive.org
  2. David, W.T. 1916. NOTES ON CICADAS FROM THE UNITED STATES WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SEVERAL
    NEW SPECIES. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. Vol. X?ilV, No. I. Read on archive.org
  3. Full Binomial Names: ITIS.gov
  4. Common names: BugGuide.net; The Songs of Insects by Lang Elliott and Wil Herschberger; personal memory.
  5. Locations: Biogeography of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, North of Mexico by Allen F. Sanborn and Polly K. Phillips.
  6. Descriptions, Colors: personal observations from specimens or photos from many sources. Descriptions are not perfect, but may be helpful.

Notes:

  • Some descriptions are based on aged specimens which have lost some or a lot of their color.

Diceroprocta olympusa (Walker, 1850) aka Olympic Scrub Cicada

Filed under: Cryptotympanini,Diceroprocta,Francis Walker,United States — Tags: — Dan @ 6:48 am

Diceroprocta olympusa (Walker, 1850) aka Olympic Scrub Cicada.

Diceroprocta olympusa photos by Joe Green from 2007.
Photo by Joe Green.

Diceroprocta olympusa photos by Joe Green from 2007.
Photo by Joe Green.

â­˘ All Diceroprocta olympusa photos & information on cicadamania.com.

Song type: Call


Source: ©Insect Singers | Species: D. olympusa

Song type: Starting Call


Source: ©Joe Green | Species: D. olympusa

Song type: Chorus


Source: ©Joe Green | Species: D. olympusa

Song type: Distress


Source: ©Joe Green | Species: D. olympusa

Video

Video Playlist

Playlists contain multiple videos found on YouTube.

Name, Location and Description

Descriptions from Wm. T. Davis’s NOTES ON CICADAS FROM THE UNITED STATES WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SEVERAL NEW SPECIES.1

Note: Diceroprocta olympusa (Walker, 1850) = Cicada sordidata Uhler, 1892 & Cicada milvus Walker, 1858, in case that isn’t clear. :)

Cicada sordidata Uhler, was described in the Transactions of the Maryland Academy of Sciences, 1892, p. 175, from two males from Southern Florida. We figure a male from Big Pine Key, Fla., Sept. 19, 1913, that has been compared with one marked ” S. Fla.” in Uhler’s collection in the United States Nat. Museum, and labeled in his handwriting” Cicada sordidata.” This was no doubt one of his types. His published description is very full and among other things he says that the first three apical areoles of the fore wings “including the veins and cross veins smoke-brown.” This is subject to some variation, though the first and second cross veins are always clouded in mature specimens. He says ” Opercula short, pale, but little more than one-third the length of the abdomen, narrowing toward the tip, and rounded there ; the tips widely separated by a wedge-shaped space ; the drums completely covered by an inflated segent, with a wide interval between, which is occupied at the outer end by a smooth hump. The raised smooth line thus begun is con- tinued back upon the succeeding tergal segments, and from each prominence a grooved line extends outwards to the border of the segments.”

Cicada olympusa Walker was described in 1850, but no locality was given. It has been credited to North America by Distant. The description would seem to cover Cicada sordidata which is of the same size and we have been unable to find any other species in collections that fits it so well. Walker says in part ” scutcheon of the fore-chest [prothorax] adorned with four black stripes; the middle pair long, widened on the fore border and on the hind border ; the outer pair short and slightly curved; furrows and sides blackish; hind scutcheon [hind margin or collar] green, widened, rounded and adorned with a large pitchy mark at the base of each fore-wing, nearly straight on each side : scutcheon of the middle chest [mesonotum] adorned with four obconical black stripes; inner pair short with tawny borders; outer pair much longer, excavated into eight separate parts ; a large black spot with a black dot on each side be- tween the inner pair and the cross-ridge . . . fore borders of the [abdominal] segments adorned with pitchy interrupted bands; overduct ferruginous : drums pale tawny, very small, far apart ; inner sides pitchy.”

If it is meant that the extremities of the opercula are far apart then the above description agrees with sordidata, in which, however, the upper and inner edges of the opercula touch or nearly so.

Cicada milvus was described by Walker in 1858 from a single female from the ” United States ” and has been placed by Distant as a synonym of Cicada olympusa. Walker describes milvus as reddish tawny and says in part : ” Prothorax with four black stripes, the inner pair approximate, connected by a short black band in front, the outer pair very near the borders; two black discal dots; hind border greenish. Mesothorax with four conical black stripes, the inner pair short, the outer pair much intersected. Abdomen with an interrupted black band on each segment. Wings vitreous; veins pale green, black towards the tips. Fore wings with the first and second transverse veins clouded with dark brown.” The wings are said to expand 27 lines, that is about 57 mm.

Classification:

Family: Cicadidae
Subfamily: Cicadinae
Tribe: Cryptotympanini
Subtribe: Cryptotympanina
Genus: Diceroprocta
Species: Diceroprocta olympusa (Walker, 1850)

List of sources

  1. (1) Davis, W.T. 1916. NOTES ON CICADAS FROM THE UNITED STATES WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SEVERAL
    NEW SPECIES. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. Vol. X?ilV, No. I. Read it on archive.org.
  2. Full Binomial Names: ITIS.gov
  3. Common names: BugGuide.net; The Songs of Insects by Lang Elliott and Wil Herschberger; personal memory.
  4. Locations: Biogeography of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, North of Mexico by Allen F. Sanborn and Polly K. Phillips.
  5. Descriptions, Colors: personal observations from specimens or photos from many sources. Descriptions are not perfect, but may be helpful.

Notes:

  • Some descriptions are based on aged specimens which have lost some or a lot of their color.

April 3, 2020

Diceroprocta apache (Davis, 1921) aka Citrus Cicada

Filed under: Cryptotympanini,Diceroprocta,United States,William T. Davis — Tags: — Dan @ 6:59 pm

Diceroprocta apache (Davis, 1921) aka Citrus Cicada:

Adam Fleishman's Diceroprocta apache
Photo by Adam Fleishman.

â­˘ All Diceroprocta apache photos and information on cicadamania.com.

Song


Source: ©Insect Singers | Species: D. apache

Video Playlist

Playlists contain multiple videos found on YouTube:

Name, Location and Description

Descriptions from Wm. T. Davis from RECORDS OF CICADAS FROM NORTH AMERICA WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES1

Note: at the time Davis assigned Diceroprocta apache to the Tibicen Latreille, 1825 genus. It’s since been moved to Diceroprocta StĂĄl, 1870.

Resembles Tibicen cinctifcra (Uhler), but has sharper pointed opercula, the outer sides of which are not parallel, but converge; is without the central pruinose spot at the base of the tergum, and instead of having the dorsal part of segment eight all pruinose, the whitened area is reduced to two spots with a black space between. In the allotype the plates that correspond to the opercula of the male, are sharper pointed than in cinctifcra, the double notch in the last ventral segment is usually deeper, the terminal spine is more robust, that is, has a broader base, and the abdomen is less tapering at the extremity. In the three types of Uhler’s cinctifcra in the United States National Museum, the costal margin of the fore wing is bright orange to the end of the radial cell, also the hind margin of the pronotum or collar, whereas in apache the color is light yellow or straw-color. The membranes at the base of both pairs of wings are orange or at least usually much darker than in apache, where they are white or light gray. Some of these differences in strudture and color are more clearly brought out in the illustrations.

Classification:

Family: Cicadidae
Subfamily: Cicadinae
Tribe: Cryptotympanini
Subtribe: Cryptotympanina
Genus: Diceroprocta
Species: Diceroprocta apache (Davis, 1921)

List of sources

  1. Davis, W.T. 1921. RECORDS OF CICADAS FROM NORTH AMERICA WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. Vol XXIX, No. I. Read it on archive.org.
  2. Full Binomial Names: ITIS.gov
  3. Common names: BugGuide.net; The Songs of Insects by Lang Elliott and Wil Herschberger; personal memory.
  4. Locations: Biogeography of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, North of Mexico by Allen F. Sanborn and Polly K. Phillips.
  5. Descriptions, Colors: personal observations from specimens or photos from many sources. Descriptions are not perfect, but may be helpful.

Notes:

  • Some descriptions are based on aged specimens which have lost some or a lot of their color.

February 29, 2020

Diceroprocta olympusa photos by Joe Green

Filed under: Diceroprocta,Joe Green,Photos & Illustrations,United States — Tags: — Dan @ 7:18 am

Diceroprocta olympusa photos by Joe Green from 2007. Florida.

Diceroprocta  olympusa photos by Joe Green from 2007.

Diceroprocta  olympusa photos by Joe Green from 2007.

Diceroprocta  olympusa photos by Joe Green from 2007.

Diceroprocta  olympusa photos by Joe Green from 2007.

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