Recently a cicada was reported found in England on iNaturalist, appearing to belong to the genus Tibicina. The best resource for European cicadas is SONGS OF EUROPEAN SINGING CICADAS. Looking at the navigation of the website it looks like there are nine Tibicina in Europe (maybe more). The cicada on iNaturalist is brown with orange highlights: u-shaped marks on its mesonotum, an orange outline of its pronotal collar, and an orange line down the middle of its head. Wing veins appear brown & black and appear to be warped during the molting process. It might be teneral — still soft from the molting process — and so its adult colors have not fully developed.
So — is it a native to England or a stowaway in some cargo from mainland Europe?
The Twitter account @MorphoCicada posted this on Twitter, which alerted me to the matter.
Paper title: Description of three new species of the genus Mata Distant, 1906 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadinae: Oncotympanini) with notes on their natural history from the Indian state of Meghalaya, India
Authors: Vivek Sarkar, Cuckoo Mahapatra, Pratyush P. Mohapatra, Manoj V. Nair, Krushnamegh Kunte
Abstract: “Three new species of the Asian genus Mata Distant, 1906 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) viz. Mata lenonia sp.nov.; Mata ruffordii sp.nov. and Mata meghalayana sp.nov. are described from the Indian state of Meghalaya. Keys and taxonomic descriptions of these species are provided with detailed accounts of their natural history and acoustics.”
Four new cicadas described in Australia! Here are the details:
Paper: Four new species of cicadas in the Yoyetta abdominalis (Distant) species group (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettinae) from southeastern Australia
Four new species are added to the Yoyetta abdominalis (Distant) species group: Y. douglasi sp. nov., Y. enigmatica sp. nov., Y. loftyensis sp. nov., and Y. ngarabal sp. nov. Calling song descriptions and morphological descriptions are provided for each species. An updated key to male specimens is also provided for the species group.
Many periodical cicadas emerged four years early in the Chicago area in 2020. These cicadas belong to the Brood XIII (13) which is set to emerge in 2024, and last emerged in 2007. Periodical cicadas often emerge in years proceeding or following the year their brood is expected to emerge. This phenomenon is called straggling. Most of the time these “stragglers” emerge in small numbers and are quickly eaten by predators, and do not go on to sing, chorus (synchronized singing for the purpose of attracting females), mate, and lay eggs. Sometimes they emerge in numbers large enough to survive, chorus, and reproduce — this seems to have happened in the Chicago area in 2020. It is thought this is how new broods formed over the millennia — cicadas emerge 4 or 1 year early in significant numbers and form a new brood. When enough stragglers emerge to successfully reproduce it is called an acceleration.
So, is a new brood forming around Chicago? Is this due to climate change or localized “heat islands”? Will the progeny of these stragglers emerge in 13, 17 or 21 years? Lots of questions — but we’ll need to wait quite some time to answer them.
There is a precedence for Brood XIII cicadas straggling in the Chicago area:
In 1969 massive numbers of periodical cicadas emerged in the Chicago suburbs 1 (Williams, K.S. & Simon, C. 1995).
In 1986, another 4-year acceleration was observed in the Chicago area by Monte Lloyd 1.
In 2003, many people left observations on our forums. Observations were made in Glenview, Flossmoor, Riverside, Downers Grove, Homewood, Westmont, Oak Park, and Hinsdale. Here are some examples:
Magicicada emerging this evening
Date: Wednesday, Jun/4/2003
Message: As I went for a walk this evening I noticed quite a few periodic cicadas emerging in the grass, crawling on the sidewalks and on the trunks of trees. This is not our year for the 17-year brood. We should not have them until 2007. Has anyone else in the Chicago area seen these cicadas? — Sue, Flossmoor, IL
Date: Monday, Jun/9/2003
Message: I heard the cicadas singing for the first time this morning after my walk. Now that I have my doors open I can hear them on and off. — Sue, Flossmoor, IL
In 2020 many people left comments on the Brood XIII page, emailed us (thanks Neil) and left sightings via the Cicada Safari app.
Magicicada Chorus. Recorded in New Jersey, Brood X (2004) by Dan Mozgai:
📅 Brood XIII (13) will emerge in 2024 in Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin and Indiana. See you then!
Magicicada Brood Chart
The Brood Chart features the names of the broods (Roman numerals), their life cycle length, when they will emerge next, which states they’ll emerge in, links to Maps, the species that will emerge, and other information. Click the maps for larger, detailed maps.
Species: M. tredecim, M. neotredecim, M. tredecassini, M. tredecula.
States: AR, IL, IN, KY, LA, MO, MS, TN
When will they emerge?
📅 🌡️ Generally speaking, these cicadas will begin to emerge when the soil 8″ beneath the ground reaches 64 degrees Fahrenheit (Heath, 1968). A nice, warm rain will often trigger an emergence. They typically emerge in May but have been known to emerge in late April or early June. It all depends on the weather.
What should you look for before they emerge?
Chimneys / Turrets
Look for cicada chimneys a.k.a. turrets. These are structures cicadas build out of the soil, positioned above the hole where they will emerge.
Look for holes in the diameter of an adult’s finger near the root system of a tree. These are sure signs that cicadas will emerge in the area.
Cicadas Under Stones & Slates
You might discover some cicada nymphs while turning over stones or when performing landscaping chores.
This is a recently emerged nymph crawling up a tree. Note that its eyes are red.
Once cicadas nymphs have emerged from the ground, they will try to find a tree (or similar vertical surface), and then begin the process of shedding their old nymph skins (ecdysis), expanding their wings, and changing to their adult coloring. Watch this amazing transformation.
How to tell the difference between the seven Magicicada species:
Left to right: Magicicada cassini, Magicicada septendecula, Magicicada septendecim:
The first way is based on the Brood. Take a look at the Brood chart above, and see which species appear with the Brood.
There are 3 basic types of Magicicada: “‘Decims”, “‘Cassini” and “‘Deculas”.
Ask someone who lived there 17 (or 13) years before.
Old timers (hint: old timers usually call them locusts).
Check your local Library for old newspaper articles.
Check with a local college: contact the entomology, forestry, or agriculture-related departments.
Your local national, state, county and town parks department (parks and rec). Some county parks departments plan events around cicada emergences.
When will they emerge?
They will emerge sometime in the Spring, for sure.
They typically emerge once the soil 8 inches (20 cm) below the surface gets to 64 degrees Fahrenheit (18 degrees Celcius). At that temperature, they will start digging their tunnels to the surface. After a couple of days with above-ground temperatures near the 80’s F, and after a good rain, they will definitely emerge. Read this paper for more info: Thermal Synchronization of Emergence in Periodical “17-year” Cicadas (Homoptera, Cicadidae, Magicicada) by James Edward Heath, American Midland Naturalist, Vol. 80, No. 2. (Oct., 1968), pp. 440-448.
Cicadas in sunny areas of your yard will emerge before cicadas in shady areas.
Cicadas in the southern-most states will emerge before cicadas in northern states.
Question: Why do I have cicadas in my neighborhood, but your chart indicates that I shouldn’t?
Answer: Some possibilities: 1) they are stragglers, periodical cicadas that emerge too soon or late, 2) they are not periodical cicadas, but are a different North American species, 3) you live on a continent other than North America, in which case, try one of these pages, or 4) SURPRISE! The U.S. is a big place and some cicada populations have yet to be documented.
Question: Why don’t I have periodical cicadas in my area, but the information on your website indicates that I should?
Answer:Stragglers can emerge 1 or 4 years early or 1 or 4 years late. Don’t be surprised if you see some periodical cicadas emerge earlier than planned this year. 17-year brood members are most likely to straggle 4 years early, and 13-year brood members are most likely to straggle 4 years late. Straggler probability chart.
Question: Why are there no Brood XI, XII, XV, XVI… ?
Answer: Perhaps you’ve noticed there are no Broods XI (11), XII (12), XV (15), XVI (16), XVII (17), XVIII (18), XX (20), XXI (21), XXIV (24), etc. Don’t worry about that. They never existed or are extinct (XI, XXI).