Cicada Mania

Dedicated to cicadas, the most amazing insects in the world.

Magicicada periodical cicada Broods.

June 1, 2020

Brood V emerging 4 years late

Filed under: Brood V,Magicicada — Dan @ 10:11 am

Looking at the latest map from Cicada Safari app data, it appears that cicadas from Brood V are emerging 4 years late. 4 year Stragglers! 21-year-old cicadas! Look around Akron, Ohio, eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, northern West Virginia.

May 30 map - Now with Brood V

Here’s a link to the Brood V map on Magicicada.org.

For historical purposes, Here’s C. L. Marlatt’s map from 1914:

Marlatt, C.L.. 1914. The periodical cicada in 1914. United States. Bureau of Entomology. Brood Map for Brood V.
Marlatt, C.L.. 1914. The periodical cicada in 1914. United States. Bureau of Entomology

Magicicada septendecim from Brood IX in Greenbrier County, WV

Filed under: Brood IX,Magicicada — Tags: — Dan @ 8:52 am

Magicicada septendecim cicada from Brood IX in Greenbrier County, WV. Photo by Tony Maro. Thanks Tony!

Tony Maro Greenbrier County WV

May 27, 2020

Where will 17 & 13 Year Periodical Cicada Broods emerge next?

Summer Cicada Banner

Skip to a section: Broods | Your Town | Pre Emergence Signs | Magicicada Species.

17 & 13 Year Periodical Cicadas

🛑 This page is strictly for Magicicada periodical cicadas, aka 17 & 13-year cicadas, aka "locusts" (read why they’re called locusts).
This does not cover annual cicada species in North America and other parts of the world.

📅 Brood IX (Nine) emerged in 2020 in North Carolina, Virginia and West Virginia. “Stragglers” from other broods also emerged in limited numbers: Brood X (1 year early), Brood XIX (4 years early) and Brood XIII (4 years early). Here’s a map where they emerged:

May 30 map - Now with Brood V

Researchers need your help! If you see a cicada, please report it using the Cicada Safari App 📱, available for Android and Apple phones. See a Live Map of sightings.

Magicicada Brood Chart

The Brood Chart features the names of the broods (Roman numerals), their life cycle length, when they will emerge next, which states they’ll emerge in, links to Maps, the species that will emerge, and other information. Click the maps for larger, detailed maps.

Brood 17 or 13 Year Stragglers Probable States & Species
I (1) 17 1961, 1978, 1995, 2012, 2029 2025 (-4), 2028 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: TN, VA, WV
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_01/
II (2) 17 1962, 1979, 1996, 2013, 2030 2026 (-4), 2029 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: CT, GA, MD, NC, NJ, NY, OK, PA, VA
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_02/
III (3) 17 1963, 1980, 1997, 2014, 2031 2027 (-4), 2030 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: IA, IL, MO
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_03/
IV (4) 17 1964, 1981, 1998, 2015, 2032 2028 (-4), 2031 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_04/
V (5) 17 1965, 1982, 1999, 2016, 2033 2029 (-4), 2032 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: LI NY, MD, OH, PA, VA, WV
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_05/
VI (6) 17 1966, 1983, 2000, 2017, 2034 2030 (-4), 2933 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. septendecula.
States: GA, NC, SC, WI, OH
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_06/
VII (7) 17 1967, 1984, 2001, 2018, 2035 2031 (-4), 2034 (-1) Species: M. septendecim.
States: NY
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_07/
VIII (8) 17 1968, 1985, 2002, 2019, 2036 2032 (-4), 2035 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: OH, PA, WV and OK
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_08/
IX (9) 17 1952, 1969, 1986, 2003, 2020 2033 (-4), 2036 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: NC, VA, WV
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_09/
X (10) 17 1953, 1970, 1987, 2004, 2021 2020 (-1), 2034 (-4), 2037 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: DE, GA, IL, IN, KY, MD, MI, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, TN, VA, WV, Washington
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_10/
XIII (13) 17 1956, 1973, 1990, 2007, 2024 2020 (-4), 2023 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini.
States: IA, IL, IN, MI, WI
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_13/
XIV (14) 17 1957, 1974, 1991, 2008, 2025 2021 (-4), 2024 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: GA, IN, KY, MA, MD, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, TN, VA, WV
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_14/
XIX (19) 13 1972, 1985, 1998, 2011, 2024 2020 (-4), 2023 (-1) Species: M. tredecim, M. neotredecim, M. tredecassini, M. tredecula.
States: AL, AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, VA
Brood XIX mini map
XXII (22) 13 1975, 1988, 2001, 2014, 2027 2023 (-4), 2026 (-1) Species: M. tredecim, M. tredecassini, M. tredecula.
States: KY, LA, MS, OH
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_22/
XXIII (23) 13 1976, 1989, 2002, 2015, 2028 2024 (-4), 2027 (-1) Species: M. tredecim, M. neotredecim, M. tredecassini, M. tredecula.
States: AR, IL, IN, KY, LA, MO, MS, TN
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_23/

When will they emerge?

📅 🌡️ Generally speaking, these cicadas will begin to emerge when the soil 8″ beneath the ground reaches 64 degrees Fahrenheit (Heath, 1968). A nice, warm rain will often trigger an emergence. They typically emerge in May but have been known to emerge in late April or early June. It all depends on the weather.

What should you look for before they emerge?

Chimneys / Turrets

Look for cicada chimneys a.k.a. turrets. These are structures cicadas build out of the soil, positioned above the hole where they will emerge.

Chimney

Holes

Look for holes the diameter of an adult’s finger near the root system of a tree. These are sure signs that cicadas will emerge in the area.

Holes

Cicadas Under Stones & Slates

You might discover some cicada nymphs while turning over stones or when performing landscaping chores.

Cicada tunneling under slate

What do they look like when they emerge:

Here is a great video of Magicicada nymphs once they have emerged from the ground:


Nymph

This is a recently emerged nymph crawling up a tree. Note that its eyes are red.

Nymph

Once cicadas nymphs have emerged from the ground, they will try to find a tree (or similar vertical surface), and then begin the process of shedding their old nymph skins (ecdysis), expanding their wings, and changing to their adult coloring. Watch this amazing transformation.

Teneral

How to tell the difference between the seven Magicicada species:

The first way is based on the Brood. Take a look at the Brood chart above, and see which species appear with the Brood.

There are 3 basic types of Magicicada: “‘Decims”, “‘Cassini” and “‘Deculas”.

“Decims” aka Pharaoh Cicadas

There are three species in this category:

  1. Magicicada septendecim (Linnaeus, 1758). 17-year life cycle. Broods: I-X, XIII, XIV.
  2. Magicicada neotredecim Marshall and Cooley 2000. 13-year life cycle. Broods: XIX, XXIII.
  3. Magicicada tredecim (Walsh and Riley, 1868). 13-year life cycle. Brood: XIX, XXII, XXIII.

Their songs are very similar, however, when M. neotredecim & M. tredecim emerge in the same location, M. neotredecim’s song takes a higher pitch. Sounds like “Pharaoh, Pharaoh!”.

Visual Appearance:

M. septendecim
Male on left; Female on right.

M. neotredecim & M. septendecim have broad orange stripes with more orange than black on their abdomens.

M. tredecim
M. tredecim, by comparison, have almost entirely orange abdomens.

eye to wing
M. septendecim also have an area of orange coloring between the eye and the wing (pronotal extension).

“Cassini” aka Dwarf Cicadas

There are two species in this category:

  1. Magicicada cassini (Fisher, 1851). 17-year life cycle. Broods: I-V, VIII-X, XIII, XIV.
  2. Magicicada tredecassini Alexander and Moore, 1962. 13-year life cycle. Broods: XIX, XXII, XXII.

Their songs are essentially identical:

M. cassini Call and Court:

Note how it makes a quick burst of sound, followed by some rapid clicks.

Visual Appearance:

M. cassini
Female on left; Male on right.
M. tredecassin & M. cassini have black abdomens with virtually no orange at all. Orange stripes are possible in the mid-west (important to note for Brood IV).

“Decula”

There are two species in this category:

  1. Magicicada septendecula Alexander and Moore, 1962. 17-year life cycle. Broods: I-VI, VIII-X, XIII, XIV.
  2. Magicicada tredecula Alexander and Moore, 1962. 13-year life cycle. Broods: XIX, XXII, XXIII.

Their songs are essentially identical:

M. tredecula Call:

Note the “tick, tick, tick” rhythm of the call.

Visual Appearance:

M. septendecula
Female on left; Male on right.
M. septendecula & M. tredecula have stripes that feature more black than orange. Otherwise, they’re very similar to M. cassini.

How to figure out if they’re coming to your town?

  1. Verify that they’re coming to your state. Check the Magicicada Brood Chart on this page.
  2. Check Cicada Brood Maps linked from this page to see if they’re coming to your general area.
  3. Check to see if they’re coming to your neighborhood. Good sources include:
    1. Check the Cicada Central Magicicada Database to see the counties where cicadas have appeared in the past.
    2. Ask someone who lived there 17 (or 13) years before.
    3. Old timers (hint: old timers usually call them locusts).
    4. Check your local Library for old newspaper articles.
    5. Check with a local college: contact the entomology, forestry, or agriculture-related departments.
    6. Your local national, state, county and town parks department (parks and rec). Some county parks departments plan events around cicada emergences.
  4. When will they emerge?
    1. They will emerge sometime in the Spring, for sure.
    2. They typically emerge once the soil 8 inches (20 cm) below the surface gets to 64 degrees Fahrenheit (18 degrees Celcius). At that temperature, they will start digging their tunnels to the surface. After a couple of days with above-ground temperatures near the 80’s F, and after a good rain, they will definitely emerge. Read this paper for more info: Thermal Synchronization of Emergence in Periodical “17-year” Cicadas (Homoptera, Cicadidae, Magicicada) by James Edward Heath, American Midland Naturalist, Vol. 80, No. 2. (Oct., 1968), pp. 440-448.
    3. Cicadas in sunny areas of your yard will emerge before cicadas in shady areas.
    4. Cicadas in the southern-most states will emerge before cicadas in northern states.
    5. You can try the Cicada Emergence Formula as well.
  5. If you don’t want them do damage your young / ornamental trees
    1. Spray them off with a garden hose.
    2. Foil around the trunk (to keep them from crawling up) (thanks Deborah).
    3. Insect barrier tape.
    4. Netting placed around & over the tree. “Insect barrier netting”. “Fruit tree covers”.
    5. Bagpipes (no joke, it worked at my friend’s wedding).
    6. Don’t use pesticide – we like all insects (especially pollinating bees).
  6. Are you scared of insects?
    • Unlike some other insects & arthropods. cicadas are not poisonous or venomous.
    • Try a hat, an umbrella, a bee-keepers’ outfit, a suit of armor…
  7. They’re coming, and they’re going to ruin my wedding!

Questions about the Brood Chart

Question: Why do I have cicadas in my neighborhood, but your chart indicates that I shouldn’t?

Answer: Some possibilities: 1) they are stragglers, periodical cicadas that emerge too soon or late, 2) they are not periodical cicadas, but are a different North American species, 3) you live on a continent other than North America, in which case, try one of these pages, or 4) SURPRISE! The U.S. is a big place and some cicada populations have yet to be documented.


Question: Why don’t I have periodical cicadas in my area, but the information on your website indicates that I should?

Answer: Two possibilities: 1) they went extinct or otherwise died off in your area, or 2) they aren’t everywhere in a state – normally there are large gaps in their range.


Question: What are stragglers?

Answer: Stragglers can emerge 1 or 4 years early or 1 or 4 years late. Don’t be surprised if you see some periodical cicadas emerge earlier than planned this year. 17-year brood members are most likely to straggle 4 years early, and 13-year brood members are most likely to straggle 4 years late. Straggler probability chart.


Question: Why are there no Brood XI, XII, XV, XVI… ?

Answer: Perhaps you’ve noticed there are no Broods XI (11), XII (12), XV (15), XVI (16), XVII (17), XVIII (18), XX (20), XXI (21), XXIV (24), etc. Don’t worry about that. They never existed or are extinct (XI, XXI).


More Magicicada websites:

  1. For much more information about 17-year cicadas visit Magicicada.org. The maps on this page link to that site.
  2. The Cicada Safari App is available for Android and Apple devices 📱. Use it to see where people are finding cicadas, and to report your own sightings.
  3. Check the Cicada Central Magicicada Database to see the counties where cicadas have appeared in the past. For more information about this database and cicada research in general, visit the Simon Lab website.

More Magicicada Information

April 18, 2020

Brood IX (9) will emerge in 2020 in North Carolina, Virginia and West Virginia

Filed under: Brood IX,Magicicada,Periodical — Dan @ 1:03 am

Summer Cicada Banner

Periodical cicada Brood IX (9) emerged in the spring of 2020 in North Carolina, Virginia and West Virginia. The last time this brood emerged was in 2003. It will emerge again in 2037.

Researchers need your help! If you see a cicada, please report it using the Cicada Safari App 📱, available for Android and Apple phones.

Brood IX is interesting to researchers because it’s located very close to 5 other broods. In a normal year, researchers would be able to drive the roads of the area and map the location of the brood so we can get data as to where the broods intersect, but because of the current situation in the U.S., most if not all researchers will be able to travel — so we need you to let us know where they’re at. Read more on Magicicada.org.

What, when, where, and why:

What:

Adult, Nymph, Molting Cicada

  • Cicada insects with a 17-year life cycle.
  • Some people call them “locusts” but they’re really cicadas.
  • Which species: All three 17-year species, Magicicada septendecim, Magicicada cassini and Magicicada septendecula. How to tell the difference between the species.
  • NOT the green ones that arrive annually.

📅🌡️ When: Typically beginning in mid-May and ending in late June. These cicadas will begin to emerge approximately when the soil 8″ beneath the ground reaches 64 degrees Fahrenheit (Heath, 1968). A nice, warm rain will often trigger an emergence.

Other tips: these cicadas will emerge after the trees have grown leaves, and, by my own observation, around the same time Iris flowers bloom.

🗺️ 🇺🇸 Where:

  • Virginia municipalities: Blacksburg, Bland, Callands, Christiansburg, Covington, Dry Pond, Ferrum, Martinsville, Roanoke, Salem, Vinton, and more.
  • Virginia counties: Allegheny, Bland, Franklin, Henry, Montgomery, Patrick, Pittsylvania, Roanoke.
  • North Carolina municipalities: Chestnut Hill, Ennice, Francisco, Hays, Kernersville, McGrady, Millers Creek, Mt Airy, North Wilkesboro, Purlear, Thurmond, Westfield, and more.
  • North Carolina counties: Ashe, Alleghany, Forsyth, Stokes, Surry, Wilkes.
  • West Virginia municipalities: Camp Creek , Elmhurst, Hinton, Jumping Branch, Spanishburg, and more.
  • West Virginia counties: Fayette, Greenbrier, Mercer, Monroe, Pocahontas, Summers.

A quick tip using data from the Cicada Safari app team:

Cicadas in the north-west areas are Brood IX (red). Cicadas south & east of that area (purple) are Brood XIX emerging early.

Maps, Apps, and Tips:

Why: Why do they stay underground for 17-years? The prevailing research suggests they’ve evolved a long, 17-year lifecycle to avoid predators that can sync up with their lifecycle & emergence. Why are there so many?! Research suggests that their huge numbers allow them to overwhelm predators, so enough of them will live on to breed and perpetuate the brood.

More facts and fun:

1907 Map from Marlatt, C.L.. 1907. The periodical cicada. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology.

The larger dots are valid. Tiny dots, no. See a modern map, or the Live Map from the Cicada Safari app.
Marlatt 1907 09 Brood IX

Brood XIII (13) will emerge in 2024 in Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin and Indiana

Filed under: Brood XIII,Magicicada,Periodical — Dan @ 1:02 am

Some Brood XIII “stragglers” emerged early in 2020. If you see a cicada and want to report it, the Cicada Safari App is available for Android and Apple devices 📱.

A particularly large amount of Brood XIII cicadas are emerging early this year. Here’s a news article and a note from the Illinois Extension. Thanks Neil for the links.

One thing that is important to determine is whether any of the off-schedule populations (especially the 4-year early and 4-year late ones) are large enough to persist and lay eggs. The big question is will they establish a new population? Please send photos of cicadas laying eggs. And if egg laying is extensive enough to damage branches, please send photos of that as well!

Some Brood XIII cicadas are emerging 4 years early, particularly in the Chicago area in 2020. Blue in the map below:

May 30 map - Now with Brood V

Periodical cicada Brood XIII (13) will emerge in the spring of 2024 in Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and possibly Michigan. The last time this brood emerged was in 2007.

Special note: Brood XIX (19) will also emerge in 2024.

What, when, where, and why:

What:

Millions of these:
Adult, Nymph, Molting Cicada

  • Cicada insects with a 17-year life cycle.
  • Some people call them “locusts” but they’re really cicadas.
  • Which species: All three 17-year species, Magicicada septendecim, Magicicada cassini and Magicicada septendecula. How to tell the difference between the species.
  • NOT the green ones that arrive annually.

When: Typically beginning in mid-May and ending in late June. These cicadas will begin to emerge approximately when the soil 8″ beneath the ground reaches 64 degrees Fahrenheit. A nice, warm rain will often trigger an emergence.

Other tips: these cicadas will emerge after the trees have grown leaves, and, by my own observation, around the same time Iris flowers bloom.

Where:

Magicicada.org has the most up to date maps.

  • Illinois places: Belvidere, Brookfield, Channahon, Chicago, Des Plaines River Trail, Downers Grove, Elmhurst, Flossmoor, Geneva, Glen Ellyn, Highland Park, Hinsdale , Homewood, La Grange , Lagrange Woods, Lake Forest, Lansing, Lincolnshire, Lisle, Lombard, MacArthur Woods Forest Preserve, Marseilles, McHenry, McKinley Woods, Morton Arboretum, Naperville, Northbrook, Ogden, Ottawa, Palos Heights, River Forest , River Grove, Romeoville, Schiller Park, Thornton, Vernon Hills, Villa Park, Weaton, Western Springs, Westmont, Wonder Lake, and more.
  • Illinois counties: Bureau, Carroll, Cass, Cook, DuPage, Fulton, Grundy, Henderson, Henry, Jo Daviess, Kankakee, Lake, LaSalle, Livingston, Logan, Marshall, Mason, McHenry, McLean, Menard, Peoria, Putnam, Sangamon, Stark, Tazewell, Whiteside, Will, Winnebago, Woodford.
  • Iowa places: Atalissa, Solon, and more.
  • Iowa counties: Benton, Black Hawk, Bremer, Cedar, Dubuque, Henry, Iowa, Johnson, Jones, Linn, Louisa, Muscatine, Scott, Tama.
  • Wisconsin places: Aurora University, Big Foot Beach State Park, Lake Geneva, Moraine Nature Preserve, and more.
  • Wisconsin counties: Crawford, Grant, Green. Rock, Walworth.
  • Indiana places: Crown Point, Portage, Purdue-North Central, Valparaiso, and more.
  • Indiana counties: LaPorte, Porter, Lake.
  • Michigan: According to Magicicada.org, Magicicada have been found along the border of Michigan and Indiana.

More Location Tips:

Why: Why do they stay underground for 17-years? The prevailing research suggests they’ve evolved a long, 17-year lifecycle to avoid predators that can sync up with their lifecycle & emergence. Why are there so many?! Research suggests that their huge numbers allow them to overwhelm predators, so enough of them will live on to breed and perpetuate the brood.

More facts and fun:

1907 Map from Marlatt, C.L.. 1907. The periodical cicada. Washington, D.C. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology.

See a modern map, or the Live Map from the Cicada Safari app.
Marlatt 1907 13 Brood XIII

More »