Cicada Mania

Dedicated to cicadas, the most amazing insects in the world.

Genera of cicadas.

August 23, 2020

Four new species of cicadas in the Yoyetta abdominalis (Distant) species group

Filed under: Australia,David Emery,L. W. Popple,Yoyetta — Dan @ 12:44 pm

Four new cicadas described in Australia! Here are the details:

Paper: Four new species of cicadas in the Yoyetta abdominalis (Distant) species group (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettinae) from southeastern Australia
Abstract:

Four new species are added to the Yoyetta abdominalis (Distant) species group: Y. douglasi sp. nov., Y. enigmatica sp. nov., Y. loftyensis sp. nov. and Y. ngarabal sp. nov. Calling song descriptions and morphological descriptions are provided for each species. An updated key to male specimens is also provided for the species group.

Author: Lindsay W. Popple; David L. Emery
Year: 2020
Journal: Records of the Australian Museum
Publisher: The Australian Museum
Link: https://journals.australian.museum/popple-2020-rec-aust-mus-724-123147/
More info on Dr. Popple’s website: Restless Firetail, Mt Lofty Firetail, Glade Firetail, and Grampians Firetail.

July 12, 2020

Tibicina haematodes (Scopoli 1763) stamp from France

Filed under: France,Pop Culture,Tibicina — Tags: — Dan @ 3:29 pm

Here’s a Tibicina haematodes (Scopoli 1763) stamp from France:

Tibicina haematodes (Scopoli 1763) stamp from France

Tibicina haematodes (Scopoli 1763) stamp from France

Bladder cicada trading card

Filed under: Australia,Cystopsaltria,Pop Culture — Dan @ 3:25 pm

Bladder cicada trading card. Bladder cicadas (Genus Cystopsaltria) are found in Australia. Link to Dr. Popple’s website for more info.

Bladder cicada trading card. Bladder cicadas are found in Australia.

Chicago Area Periodical Cicada Emergences in 2020

Many periodical cicadas emerged four years early in the Chicago area in 2020. These cicadas belong to the Brood XIII (13) which is set to emerge in 2024, and last emerged in 2007. Periodical cicadas often emerge in years proceeding or following the year their brood is expected to emerge. This phenomenon is called straggling. Most of the time these “stragglers” emerge in small numbers and are quickly eaten by predators, and do not go on to sing, chorus (synchronized singing for the purpose of attracting females), mate, and lay eggs. Sometimes they emerge in numbers large enough to survive, chorus and reproduce — this seems to have happened in the Chicago area in 2020. It is thought this this is how new broods formed over the millennia — cicadas emerge 4 or 1 year early in significant numbers and form a new brood. When enough stragglers emerge to successfully reproduce it is called an acceleration.

So, is a new brood forming around Chicago? Is this due to climate change or localized “heat islands”? Will the progeny of these stragglers emerge in 13, 17 or 21 years? Lots of questions — but we’ll need to wait quite some time to answer them.

There is a precedence for Brood XIII cicadas straggling in the Chicago area:

In 1969 massive numbers of periodical cicadas emerged in the Chicago suburbs 1 (Williams, K.S. & Simon, C. 1995).

In 1986, another 4-year acceleration was observed in the Chicago area by Monte Lloyd 1.

In 2003, many people left observations on our forums. Observations were made in Glenview, Flossmoor, Riverside, Downers Grove, Homewood, Westmont, Oak Park, and Hinsdale. Here are some examples:

Magicicada emerging this evening

Date: Wednesday, Jun/4/2003

Message: As I went for a walk this evening I noticed quite a few periodic cicadas emerging in the grass, crawling on the sidewalks and on the trunks of trees. This is not our year for the 17-year brood. We should not have them until 2007. Has anyone else in the Chicago area seen these cicadas? — Sue, Flossmoor, IL

Cicada singing

Date: Monday, Jun/9/2003

Message: I heard the cicadas singing for the first time this morning after my walk. Now that I have my doors open I can hear them on and off. — Sue, Flossmoor, IL

In 2020 many people left comments on the Brood XIII page, emailed us (thanks Neil) and left sightings via the Cicada Safari app.

1Williams, K.S. & Simon, C. 1995. The Ecology, Behavior, and Evolution of Periodical Cicadas. Annual Review of Entomology. Vol. 40:269-295 (https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.40.010195.001413).

June 1, 2020

Brood V emerging 4 years late

Filed under: Brood V,Magicicada — Dan @ 10:11 am

Looking at the latest map from Cicada Safari app data, it appears that cicadas from Brood V are emerging 4 years late. 4 year Stragglers! 21-year-old cicadas! Look around Akron, Ohio, eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, northern West Virginia.

May 30 map - Now with Brood V

Here’s a link to the Brood V map on Magicicada.org.

For historical purposes, Here’s C. L. Marlatt’s map from 1914:

Marlatt, C.L.. 1914. The periodical cicada in 1914. United States. Bureau of Entomology. Brood Map for Brood V.
Marlatt, C.L.. 1914. The periodical cicada in 1914. United States. Bureau of Entomology

Magicicada septendecim from Brood IX in Greenbrier County, WV

Filed under: Brood IX,Magicicada — Tags: — Dan @ 8:52 am

Magicicada septendecim cicada from Brood IX in Greenbrier County, WV. Photo by Tony Maro. Thanks Tony!

Tony Maro Greenbrier County WV

May 27, 2020

Where will 17 & 13 Year Periodical Cicada Broods emerge next?

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Skip to a section: Broods | Your Town | Pre Emergence Signs | Magicicada Species.

17 & 13 Year Periodical Cicadas

🛑 This page is strictly for Magicicada periodical cicadas, aka 17 & 13-year cicadas, aka "locusts" (read why they’re called locusts).
This does not cover annual cicada species in North America and other parts of the world.

📅 Brood X will emerge in the spring of 2021.

Researchers need your help! If you see a cicada, please report it using the Cicada Safari App 📱, available for Android and Apple phones. See a Live Map of sightings.

Magicicada Brood Chart

The Brood Chart features the names of the broods (Roman numerals), their life cycle length, when they will emerge next, which states they’ll emerge in, links to Maps, the species that will emerge, and other information. Click the maps for larger, detailed maps.

Brood 17 or 13 Year Stragglers Probable States & Species
I (1) 17 1961, 1978, 1995, 2012, 2029 2025 (-4), 2028 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: TN, VA, WV
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_01/
II (2) 17 1962, 1979, 1996, 2013, 2030 2026 (-4), 2029 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: CT, GA, MD, NC, NJ, NY, OK, PA, VA
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_02/
III (3) 17 1963, 1980, 1997, 2014, 2031 2027 (-4), 2030 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: IA, IL, MO
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_03/
IV (4) 17 1964, 1981, 1998, 2015, 2032 2028 (-4), 2031 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_04/
V (5) 17 1965, 1982, 1999, 2016, 2033 2029 (-4), 2032 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: LI NY, MD, OH, PA, VA, WV
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_05/
VI (6) 17 1966, 1983, 2000, 2017, 2034 2030 (-4), 2933 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. septendecula.
States: GA, NC, SC, WI, OH
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_06/
VII (7) 17 1967, 1984, 2001, 2018, 2035 2031 (-4), 2034 (-1) Species: M. septendecim.
States: NY
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_07/
VIII (8) 17 1968, 1985, 2002, 2019, 2036 2032 (-4), 2035 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: OH, PA, WV and OK
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_08/
IX (9) 17 1952, 1969, 1986, 2003, 2020 2033 (-4), 2036 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: NC, VA, WV
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_09/
X (10) 17 1953, 1970, 1987, 2004, 2021 2020 (-1), 2034 (-4), 2037 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: DE, GA, IL, IN, KY, MD, MI, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, TN, VA, WV, Washington
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_10/
XIII (13) 17 1956, 1973, 1990, 2007, 2024 2020 (-4), 2023 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini.
States: IA, IL, IN, MI, WI
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_13/
XIV (14) 17 1957, 1974, 1991, 2008, 2025 2021 (-4), 2024 (-1) Species: M. septendecim, M. cassini, M. septendecula.
States: GA, IN, KY, MA, MD, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, TN, VA, WV
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_14/
XIX (19) 13 1972, 1985, 1998, 2011, 2024 2020 (-4), 2023 (-1) Species: M. tredecim, M. neotredecim, M. tredecassini, M. tredecula.
States: AL, AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, VA
Brood XIX mini map
XXII (22) 13 1975, 1988, 2001, 2014, 2027 2023 (-4), 2026 (-1) Species: M. tredecim, M. tredecassini, M. tredecula.
States: KY, LA, MS, OH
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_22/
XXIII (23) 13 1976, 1989, 2002, 2015, 2028 2024 (-4), 2027 (-1) Species: M. tredecim, M. neotredecim, M. tredecassini, M. tredecula.
States: AR, IL, IN, KY, LA, MO, MS, TN
http://magicicada.org/magicicada/brood_23/

When will they emerge?

📅 🌡️ Generally speaking, these cicadas will begin to emerge when the soil 8″ beneath the ground reaches 64 degrees Fahrenheit (Heath, 1968). A nice, warm rain will often trigger an emergence. They typically emerge in May but have been known to emerge in late April or early June. It all depends on the weather.

What should you look for before they emerge?

Chimneys / Turrets

Look for cicada chimneys a.k.a. turrets. These are structures cicadas build out of the soil, positioned above the hole where they will emerge.

Chimney

Holes

Look for holes the diameter of an adult’s finger near the root system of a tree. These are sure signs that cicadas will emerge in the area.

Holes

Cicadas Under Stones & Slates

You might discover some cicada nymphs while turning over stones or when performing landscaping chores.

Cicada tunneling under slate

What do they look like when they emerge:

Here is a great video of Magicicada nymphs once they have emerged from the ground:


Nymph

This is a recently emerged nymph crawling up a tree. Note that its eyes are red.

Nymph

Once cicadas nymphs have emerged from the ground, they will try to find a tree (or similar vertical surface), and then begin the process of shedding their old nymph skins (ecdysis), expanding their wings, and changing to their adult coloring. Watch this amazing transformation.

Teneral

How to tell the difference between the seven Magicicada species:

The first way is based on the Brood. Take a look at the Brood chart above, and see which species appear with the Brood.

There are 3 basic types of Magicicada: “‘Decims”, “‘Cassini” and “‘Deculas”.

“Decims” aka Pharaoh Cicadas

There are three species in this category:

  1. Magicicada septendecim (Linnaeus, 1758). 17-year life cycle. Broods: I-X, XIII, XIV.
  2. Magicicada neotredecim Marshall and Cooley 2000. 13-year life cycle. Broods: XIX, XXIII.
  3. Magicicada tredecim (Walsh and Riley, 1868). 13-year life cycle. Brood: XIX, XXII, XXIII.

Their songs are very similar, however, when M. neotredecim & M. tredecim emerge in the same location, M. neotredecim’s song takes a higher pitch. Sounds like “Pharaoh, Pharaoh!”.

Visual Appearance:

M. septendecim
Male on left; Female on right.

M. neotredecim & M. septendecim have broad orange stripes with more orange than black on their abdomens.

M. tredecim
M. tredecim, by comparison, have almost entirely orange abdomens.

eye to wing
M. septendecim also have an area of orange coloring between the eye and the wing (pronotal extension).

“Cassini” aka Dwarf Cicadas

There are two species in this category:

  1. Magicicada cassini (Fisher, 1851). 17-year life cycle. Broods: I-V, VIII-X, XIII, XIV.
  2. Magicicada tredecassini Alexander and Moore, 1962. 13-year life cycle. Broods: XIX, XXII, XXII.

Their songs are essentially identical:

M. cassini Call and Court:

Note how it makes a quick burst of sound, followed by some rapid clicks.

Visual Appearance:

M. cassini
Female on left; Male on right.
M. tredecassin & M. cassini have black abdomens with virtually no orange at all. Orange stripes are possible in the mid-west (important to note for Brood IV).

“Decula”

There are two species in this category:

  1. Magicicada septendecula Alexander and Moore, 1962. 17-year life cycle. Broods: I-VI, VIII-X, XIII, XIV.
  2. Magicicada tredecula Alexander and Moore, 1962. 13-year life cycle. Broods: XIX, XXII, XXIII.

Their songs are essentially identical:

M. tredecula Call:

Note the “tick, tick, tick” rhythm of the call.

Visual Appearance:

M. septendecula
Female on left; Male on right.
M. septendecula & M. tredecula have stripes that feature more black than orange. Otherwise, they’re very similar to M. cassini.

How to figure out if they’re coming to your town?

  1. Verify that they’re coming to your state. Check the Magicicada Brood Chart on this page.
  2. Check Cicada Brood Maps linked from this page to see if they’re coming to your general area.
  3. Check to see if they’re coming to your neighborhood. Good sources include:
    1. Check the Cicada Central Magicicada Database to see the counties where cicadas have appeared in the past.
    2. Ask someone who lived there 17 (or 13) years before.
    3. Old timers (hint: old timers usually call them locusts).
    4. Check your local Library for old newspaper articles.
    5. Check with a local college: contact the entomology, forestry, or agriculture-related departments.
    6. Your local national, state, county and town parks department (parks and rec). Some county parks departments plan events around cicada emergences.
  4. When will they emerge?
    1. They will emerge sometime in the Spring, for sure.
    2. They typically emerge once the soil 8 inches (20 cm) below the surface gets to 64 degrees Fahrenheit (18 degrees Celcius). At that temperature, they will start digging their tunnels to the surface. After a couple of days with above-ground temperatures near the 80’s F, and after a good rain, they will definitely emerge. Read this paper for more info: Thermal Synchronization of Emergence in Periodical “17-year” Cicadas (Homoptera, Cicadidae, Magicicada) by James Edward Heath, American Midland Naturalist, Vol. 80, No. 2. (Oct., 1968), pp. 440-448.
    3. Cicadas in sunny areas of your yard will emerge before cicadas in shady areas.
    4. Cicadas in the southern-most states will emerge before cicadas in northern states.
    5. You can try the Cicada Emergence Formula as well.
  5. If you don’t want them do damage your young / ornamental trees
    1. Spray them off with a garden hose.
    2. Foil around the trunk (to keep them from crawling up) (thanks Deborah).
    3. Insect barrier tape.
    4. Netting placed around & over the tree. “Insect barrier netting”. “Fruit tree covers”.
    5. Bagpipes (no joke, it worked at my friend’s wedding).
    6. Don’t use pesticide – we like all insects (especially pollinating bees).
  6. Are you scared of insects?
    • Unlike some other insects & arthropods. cicadas are not poisonous or venomous.
    • Try a hat, an umbrella, a bee-keepers’ outfit, a suit of armor…
  7. They’re coming, and they’re going to ruin my wedding!

Questions about the Brood Chart

Question: Why do I have cicadas in my neighborhood, but your chart indicates that I shouldn’t?

Answer: Some possibilities: 1) they are stragglers, periodical cicadas that emerge too soon or late, 2) they are not periodical cicadas, but are a different North American species, 3) you live on a continent other than North America, in which case, try one of these pages, or 4) SURPRISE! The U.S. is a big place and some cicada populations have yet to be documented.


Question: Why don’t I have periodical cicadas in my area, but the information on your website indicates that I should?

Answer: Two possibilities: 1) they went extinct or otherwise died off in your area, or 2) they aren’t everywhere in a state – normally there are large gaps in their range.


Question: What are stragglers?

Answer: Stragglers can emerge 1 or 4 years early or 1 or 4 years late. Don’t be surprised if you see some periodical cicadas emerge earlier than planned this year. 17-year brood members are most likely to straggle 4 years early, and 13-year brood members are most likely to straggle 4 years late. Straggler probability chart.


Question: Why are there no Brood XI, XII, XV, XVI… ?

Answer: Perhaps you’ve noticed there are no Broods XI (11), XII (12), XV (15), XVI (16), XVII (17), XVIII (18), XX (20), XXI (21), XXIV (24), etc. Don’t worry about that. They never existed or are extinct (XI, XXI).


More Magicicada websites:

  1. For much more information about 17-year cicadas visit Magicicada.org. The maps on this page link to that site.
  2. The Cicada Safari App is available for Android and Apple devices 📱. Use it to see where people are finding cicadas, and to report your own sightings.
  3. Check the Cicada Central Magicicada Database to see the counties where cicadas have appeared in the past. For more information about this database and cicada research in general, visit the Simon Lab website.

More Magicicada Information

May 16, 2020

A cicada from Ecuador, probably Pachypsaltria sp. Photo by Rebecca van den Bogert

Filed under: Cicadatrini,Ecuador,Pachypsaltria — Dan @ 8:53 am

Rebecca van den Bogert shared this photo of a cicada from Ecuador.

Details: “Plaza de Ponchos” Marktet in Otovalo / April 19th 2007 / 2 p.m. / about 65 °F.

I’m reasonably certain it belongs to the genus Pachypsaltria, and might be Pachypsaltria cinctomaculata. I’m not 100% of that.

Rebecca van den Bogert - Ecuador
Photo by Rebecca van den Bogert. Original was cropped.

April 29, 2020

Magicicadas emerging early in 2020, Stragglers from other Broods

Filed under: Accelerations,Magicicada,Periodical Stragglers — Dan @ 6:56 pm

In 2020, the main periodical cicada brood expected to emerge in the U.S. is Brood IX (9). Brood IX will emerge in southern West Virginia, western Virginia, and a small portion of north-western North Carolina. This we know for sure.

If you want to see where cicadas are being reported, try the Cicada Safari App is available for Android and Apple devices 📱.

OK, here’s the point of this article:

Surprise Stragglers

Cicadas from other broods will also emerge this year in small numbers. When cicadas emerge early or late, they’re called stragglers. Don’t get hung up on the meaning of the word. If it makes you happy, call the ones that emerge early “precursors”, “pioneers”, or “heralds”.

Members of Brood XIX (19) are emerging in parts of North Carolina and Georgia, where Brood XIX is know to exist. There’s some discussion of this over on the Cicada Discussion, Science and Study Group on Facebook. You might see them in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Lousiana, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.

The rest of Brood XIX will emerge in 2024. Here’s a map.

Here’s a paper that discusses 13-year Magicicada emerging 4 years early: David C. Marshall, Kathy B. R. Hill, and John R. Cooley “Multimodal Life-Cycle Variation in 13- and 17-Year Periodical Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada),” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 90(3), 211-226, (1 July 2017). https://doi.org/10.2317/0022-8567-90.3.211

Members of Brood XIII (13) are likely to emerge 4 years early in Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and possibly Michigan.

The rest of Brood XIII emerge in 2024 (a big year for periodical cicadas). Here’s a map.

Some members of Brood X (10) should emerge 1 year early in Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington D.C.

The rest of Brood X will emerge next year in 2021. Here’s a map.

Here’s a screen shot from the Cicada Safari app:

May 30 map - Now with Brood V

Within the app, you can zoom in to see where the cicadas are appearing. Here’s a “Live Map” of the sightings from the app.Pinch and zoom to get details.

April 18, 2020

Davis’ Key to Species of the Genus Tibicen found in the Southeastern United States

I’ve been updating the North American cicada pages on this site, and I’ve been including snippets (and some chunks) from William T. Davis’ cicada papers from the early 1900s. They’re in the public domain and excellent resources.

Davis provided a key of cicadas that belong to the then genus Tibicen in his 1918 article Mississippi Cicadas, with a Key to the Species of the Southeastern United States from volume 26 of the Journal of The New York Entomological Society. Download it from archive.org.

Mississippi Cicadas

Since 1918, genus and some species names have changed, so I’m going to present the key here, with highlighted notes on the updated names + images (when I have them). I’ll try to replicate the formatting of the original document as best I can.

Here goes…

Key to Species of the Genus Tibicen found in the Southeastern United States.

Note: the cicadas in the key are now organized in three genera: Neotibicen (A B), Megatibicen (A BB), and Diceroprocta (AA).

A. Large, heavy bodied species; head broad, uncus simple, and first cross vein in the fore wings starting from radius 3 far back, or about one third distant from base of first marginal cell.

     B. Uncus longer than broad. Black species with green or greenish markings and black area on the central part of the abdomen beneath, except in sayi [sayi = Neotibicen tibicen tibicen], and new variety of davisi [new variety of davisi = Neotibicen davisi harnedi].

Note: this group of cicadas (B) are now organized under the genus Neotibicen, not Tibicen.

         C. Hind margin of pronotum or collar, green or greenish.

             A narrow irregular area of black on the under side of the abdomen; opercula short and broad, and usually in the males an attenuated, pruinose stripe each side on the dorsum of segment three … pruinosa (Say). [pruinosa = Neotibicen pruinosus pruinosus].

N. pruinosus

Neotibicen pruinosus pruinosus
photo by Paul Krombholz.

             Dorsum of abdomen with the hind margin of the segments more or less brown and generally but a trace of pruinose stripe each side on segment three … pruinosa var. winnemanna (Davis) [pruinosa var. winnemanna = Neotibicen winnemanna].

Neotibicen winnemanna Garner NC
Photo of a Neotibicen winnemanna.

             Dorsum of abdomen shining black with a broad pruinose mark each side on segment three; blackened area on under side of abdomen more in the nature of an even stripe … pruinosa var latifasciata (Davis) [pruinosa var. latifasciata = Neotibicen latifasciatus].

             A longitudinal band of black on the under side of the abdomen, the opercula more lobate, and the margin of the front wings suddenly bent near the middle … linnei (Smith & Grossbeck) [linnei = Neotibicen linnei].

Neotibicen linnei
Photo of a Neotibicen linnei.

             A definite longitudinal band of black on the under side of the abdomen; head with the front rather prominent. Not a large species … canicularis (Harris) [canicularis = Neotibicen canicularis].

             An irregular band of black on the under side of the abdomen, head rounded in front; a rather small species … davisi (Smith & Grossbeck) [davisi = Neotibicen davisi davisi].

             Abdomen greenish centrally on under side, blackened area wanting, marginal cells of fore wings clouded … davisi var. harnedi new variety [davisi var. harnedi = Neotibicen davisi harnedi].

Krombholz Davisi compared
Photo by Paul Krombhold. Neotibicen davisi harnedi (left), Neotibicen davisi davisi (right).

        CC. Hind margin of pronotum or collar black or nearly so (except in sayi var. australis).

            D. Central area of the abdomen beneath black.

                 Opercula long and with the legs usually somewhat chest- nut colored ; the uncus when seen in profile forked, resembling the open mouth of a snake … similaris (Smith & Grossbeck) [similaris = Neotibicen similaris similaris].

                 Opercula much shorter, more rounded, and the black area on the under side of the abdomen in the nature of an even stripe. Uncus not forked … lyricen (De Geer) [lyricen = Neotibicen lyricen lyricen].

                 Blacker than typical lyricen, lacking the considerable amount of fulvous markings on the pronotum and mesonotum. A fulvous somewhat anchor-shaped mark centrally on the pronotum … lyricen var. engelhardti (Davis) [lyricen var. engelhardti = Neotibicen lyricen engelhardti].

            DD. Central area of the abdomen not black beneath, often pruinose, as well as the long opercula.

                 Collar black, often with a greenish spot each side near the outer angles. … sayi (Smith & Grossbeck) [sayi = Neotibicen tibicen tibicen].

                 Collar all green or nearly so, as well as the pronotum and mesonotum … sayi var. australis (Davis) [sayi = Neotibicen tibicen australis].

    BB. Uncus broad at the base, triangular in shape and generally about as broad as long. Opercula broad and rounded at the extremities no definite black area on the central part of the abdomen beneath, usually unicolorus.

Note: this group of cicadas (BB) are now organized under the genus Megatibicen, not Tibicen.

         E. Wings long and narrow, collar 2 mm. or less in breadth at central portions ; dorsum of abdomen black or nearly so.

             Basal cell of fore wings rusty in color, anal cells (mem- branes) of both pair of wings gray; usually expands no mm. or more … resonans (Walker) [resonans = Megatibicen resonans].

Neotibicen resonans photos by Joe Green from 2007, taken in Florida.
Photo of a Megatibicen resonans by Joe Green.

             Basal cell of fore wings often black or nearly so, anal cells of both pair of wings yellowish. Expands about 100 mm … figurata (Walker) [figurata = Megatibicen figuratus].

M. figurata
Photo of a Megatibicen figuratus by Paul Krombholz.

         EE. Wings broad, hind margin of the pronotum or collar green or greenish and more than 2 mm. broad.

             F. Anal cells or membranes at base of fore and hind wings gray.

                 Dorsal segments of the abdomen not margined with brown ; in fresh specimens the basal segments pruinose, also the terminal segments, leaving the four middle segments black. A large species expanding over no
mm. … auletes (Germar) [auletes = Megatibicen auletes].

Megatibicen auletes, the largest cicada in North America
Photo of a Megatibicen auletes.

             FF. Anal cells or membranes at base of fore and hind wings light orange, two prominent marks on the mesonotum resembling the Hebrew letter resh inverted.

                 Fore wings with the first and second cross veins clouded, and the dorsum of the abdomen brownish or brownish black … resh (Haldeman) [resh = Megatibicen resh].

Megatibicen resh molting adult
Photo of a Megatibicen resh.

                 Fore wings with the first and second cross veins but faintly or not at all clouded and the abdominal segments margined posteriorly with brown. In fresh specimens there is usually a median row of white spots on the dorsum of the abdomen … marginalis (Walker) [marginalis = Megatibicen pronotalis walkeri].

Megatibicen pronotalis photo by Roy Troutman, taken in Batavia, Ohio
Photo of a Megatibicen pronotalis walkeri by Roy Troutman.

AA. Small species ; wings starting from about the middle of the first marginal cell.

Note: this group of cicadas (AA) are now organized under the genus Diceroprocta, not Tibicen.

     G. First and second cross veins of fore wings clouded.

         Expanse of wings about 90 mm … biconica (Walker) [biconica = Diceroprocta biconica].

         Expanse of wings about 60 mm … olympusa (Walker) [olympusa = Diceroprocta olympusa].

Diceroprocta olympusa photos by Joe Green from 2007.
Photo of a Diceroprocta olympusa by Joe Green.

     GG. First and second cross veins of fore wings not clouded, wings clear throughout and expanding about 70 mm.

         Head rather large, front rounded, collar greenish or yellowish and contrasted in color rather sharply with the brown and black of pronotum and mesonotum … viridifascia (Walker) [viridifascia = Diceroprocta viridifascia].

         Head proportionately smaller than in the last ; front more pro- truding;- collar not so contrastingly colored and fore wings narrower … vitripennis (Say) [vitripennis = Diceroprocta vitripennis].


Diceroprocta vitripennis photo by Paul Krombholz.

and that’s all folks…

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