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April 30, 2016

Brood V Periodical Cicada Molting

Filed under: Brood V,Matt Berger — Dan @ 3:23 pm

Frequent Cicada Mania contributor Matt Berger sent us these video clips of a periodical cicada molting and expanding its wings. Enjoy:

If you find a nymph, and bring it inside, it will likely molt.

64 Degrees Fahrenheit Eight Inches Deep

Filed under: James Edward Heath,Magicicada,Periodical — Dan @ 1:22 am

hot under the exoskeleton

Soil temperature triggers periodical cicada emergences:

James Edward Heath in his paper Thermal Synchronization of Emergence in Periodical “17-year” Cicadas (Homoptera, Cicadidae, Magicicada)1 discovered that periodical cicadas will emerge, on average, when the soil 8 inches below the ground reaches 64 degrees Fahrenheit:

Soil temperature at 20-cm [7.87 in] depth in seven locations averaged 17.89 C [64.202 F] at the time of emergence, regardless of date. Cicadas emerging from burrows had average body temperatures of 18.04 C [64.472 F]. Synchrony in emergence may be due to animals reaching a critical threshold temperature.

The soil warms their bodies and that triggers the cicadas to emerge.

A warm rain, which will seep into the earth and warm the bodies of cicadas, can trigger a “particularly intensive” emergence.

Alexander and Moore (1962) noted that emergences were par- ticularly intensive following warm rains ( > 2 0 C ? ). I believe this suggests that the soil temperature probably was near emergence tem- perature and the heat transported by the water percolating into the ground warmed the soil sufficiently to raise soil temperature above the emergence threshold.

Some unanswered questions I have are: 1) how long does the temperature have to be 64°F+ – just a moment, or a certain number of hours, and 2) because we know not all cicadas emerge instantaneously, what is the maximum temperature that for certain will clear them from the soil?

This is an example of a temperature probe use to study the emergence temperature of cicadas. The probe in this picture is held by cicada researcher Gene Kritsky:
Temperature probe

Note that males typically emerge before females, and that the larger ‘decim species emerge before the smaller cassini species.

For a more modern, crowd-sourced study of this see the radiolab Cicada Tracker project.

I think I know what you’re thinking: “I don’t own a temperature probe, how can I guess when the temperature is 64°F 8” below the soil? Direct sunlight, air temperature and rain warms the soil. Southern facing land will warm sooner than northern facing land. Land in direct sunlight will warm faster than land in shade. Rainfall on a 80°+ day will quickly do the trick, but two weeks of temps in the 70°’s should work as well. So keep an eye on the 10-day weather forecast and watch for those days in the 70s, and especially the 80s.

Minimum Flight Temperature:
Their body temperature needs to be a little warmer than that to fly. Their minimum flight temperature (MFT) is 18-21°C / 65-70°F. The temperature varies depending on the Brood and species. They’ll need a few more degrees before they’re fully functional, and start singing and mating.

So, until their bodies are about 72°F (“room temperature”) they won’t be flying, singing and mating.

Maximum voluntary tolerance temperature:
Maximum voluntary tolerance temperature (MVT) for periodical cicadas is 31-34°C / 88-93°F, again depending on Brood and species. Maximum voluntary tolerance is the point at which cicadas seek shade and when thermoregulation takes precedence over other behaviors.

See Thermal responses of periodical cicadas: within and between brood parity (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada spp.) and Thermoregulation by Endogenous Heat Production in Two South American Grass Dwelling Cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Proarna) for more information.

1 Thermal Synchronization of Emergence in Periodical “17-year” Cicadas (Homoptera, Cicadidae, Magicicada) by James Edward Heath, American Midland Naturalist, Vol. 80, No. 2. (Oct., 1968), pp. 440-448.

April 27, 2016

Please use the correct imagery for 17 year cicadas

Filed under: Identify,Magicicada,Periodical,Video — Dan @ 1:01 am

If you’re writing an article about the coming emergence of the 17-year periodical cicadas, please use the correct genus & species of cicadas.

The genus of all 17 year cicadas is Magicicada, and they are never green. The three species of 17-year cicadas are M. septendecim, M. cassini, and M. septendecula. They’re all black with orange wings and legs and red eyes (some exceptions, but they’re never green).

An adult Magicicada septendecim by Dan Mozgai/cicadamania.com:

Brood II Magicicada septendecim

A newly emerged, teneral, Magicicada septendecim by Dan Mozgai/cicadamania.com:

Imagining Brood II Magicicada septendecim

A mating pair of Magicicada septendecim by Dan Mozgai/cicadamania.com:

A pair of mating Magicicada septendecims found in Woodbridge Township NJ

17-year cicada video:

A singing Magicicada septendecim:

Singing Magicicada septendecim from Cicada Mania on Vimeo.

A Magicicada septendecim laying eggs:

Magicicada septendecim ovipositing from Cicada Mania on Vimeo.

A Magicicada septendecim up close (deceased):

Close up of a tymbal of a Magicicada septendecim from Cicada Mania on Vimeo.

Magicicada on a tree (mostly Magicicada cassini):

For the sake of cicada correctness, feel free to use them in your article. Just credit cicadamania.com.

More photos: All the Magicicada galleries on the site.

If you are looking to license Magicicada images or HD Video, Roy Troutman has plenty of both. Reach out to him if interested. His images and video are tagged throughout the site.

Hundreds of shed cicada skins (exuvia) by Troutman:

2014 Ohio Exuvia Pile by Roy Troutman

Wrong Cicadas:

If the cicada you use in your article is green, it isn’t a 17-year cicada. I repeat: if the cicada is green it is not a 17-year cicada.

The cicada at the top of the Wikipedia page for cicadas is not a 17-year cicada, it’s an annual cicada called Neotibicen linnei:

Tibicen linnei
(photo credit for this Neotibicen linnei).

The cicada shedding its skin on a roll of paper towel… that’s not a 17-year cicada either:

Wikipedia
(Photo Credits for the molting cicada).

Looking for people to speak at a conference or “cicadacon”?

Need a speaker for a Cicada Convention or a Periodical Cicada Event? Try these folks:

April 15, 2016

Brood V 17-Year Cicadas Due in Spring of 2016

Filed under: Brood V,Magicicada,Periodical — Dan @ 1:50 am

Brood V 2016Brood V (5) 17-year cicadas will emerge in the spring of 2016 in Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia.

Latest Updates:
(4/27/16): many sightings of nymphs are appearing on the Magicicada.org map. Someone shared a photo on Facebook of a nymph probably dug up by a rodent, like a vole.

(4/22/16): the Report a Cicada Sighting form is up on Magicicada.org.

FYI: periodical cicadas will not emerge in 2016 in Baltimore, Washington D.C. and New York City.

(4/2/16): Cleveland Metroparks posted a photo of a Magicicada nymph close to the surface.

About Brood V:

The cicada species that will emerge are Magicicada cassinii (Fisher, 1852), Magicicada septendecim (Linnaeus, 1758), and Magicicada septendecula Alexander and Moore, 1962. These periodical cicadas have a 17-year life cycle. The last time they emerged was 1999.

When: Generally speaking, these cicadas will begin to emerge when the soil 8″ beneath the ground reaches 64 degrees Fahrenheit. A nice, warm rain will often trigger a emergence. So, definitely May, but something might happen in April if we have a particularly hot spring.

Locations where they are likely to emerge:

This data comes from the Cicada Central Magicicada Database and other sources.

Although the cicadas will emerge in MD, NY, OH, PA, VA and WV, the area is limited and patchy. No Brood V cicadas for D.C., Cincinnati, or NYC (people have asked). Their range is closer to this map (with cicadas in the orange areas):

Brood V range

Maryland:

Counties: Garrett.

New York:

Specific locations in L.I.:

  • Wildwood State Park (maybe not… TDB)

Counties: Suffolk (Long Island).

Ohio:

Specific locations in Ohio:

  • The emergence should be good in the south eastern part of the state and in Summit, Medina, and southern Cuyahoga counties1.
  • Hocking State Forest, Hocking county, which is where James Edward Heath performed his investigation of periodical cicada Thermal Synchronization2.
  • Tar Hollow State Forest, in Laurelville, Hocking County, Ohio.
  • Strouds Run State Park, in Canaan Township, Athens County.
  • Athens, Athens County, Ohio
  • Findley State Park, Lorain County, Ohio.

Counties: Ashland, Ashtabula, Athens, Belmont, Carroll, Columbiana, Coshocton, Crawford, Cuyahoga, Fairfield, Franklin, Gallia, Guernsey, Harrison, Hocking, Jackson, Jefferson, Knox, Lake, Lawrence, Licking, Lorain, Mahoning, Medina, Meigs, Muskingum, Noble, Ottawa, Perry, Pickaway, Pike, Portage, Richland, Ross, Scioto, Seneca, Stark, Summit, Trumbull, Tuscarawas, Vinton, Washington, Wayne

Thanks to Roy Troutman, John Cooley, Chris Simon and Gene Kritsky for the tips!

Pennsylvania:

Counties:Allegheny, Fayette, Greene, Washington, Westmoreland

Virginia:

Specific locations in Virginia:

  • Douthat State Park, in Bath & Allegheny County Virginia.

Counties: Allegheny, Augusta, Bath, Highland, Richmond, Rockingham, Shenandoah

West Virginia:

Counties: Barbour, Boone, Braxton, Brooke, Cabell, Calhoun, Clay, Doddridge, Fayette, Gilmer, Grant, Greenbrier, Hampshire, Hancock, Hardy, Harrison, Jackson, Kanawha, Lewis, Marion, Marshall, Mason, Monongalia, Nicholas, Ohio, Pendleton, Pocahontas, Preston, Putnam, Raleigh, Randolph, Ritchie, Roane, Taylor, Tyler, Upshur, Webster, Wetzel, Wood

Learn more about Brood V:

Learn More:

Watch a cicada emerge from its skin

A whole lot of cicada nymphs

1 Kritsky, G., J. Smith, and N. T. Gallagher. 1999. The 1999 emergence of the periodical cicada in Ohio (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada spp. Brood V). Ohio Biological Survey Notes 2:43-47.

2 Thermal Synchronization of Emergence in Periodical “17-year” Cicadas (Homoptera, Cicadidae, Magicicada) by James Edward Heath, American Midland Naturalist, Vol. 80, No. 2. (Oct., 1968), pp. 440-448.

* The map is based on this map from the Wikimedia Commons by Lokal_Profil.

March 22, 2016

Some Songs About Cicadas

Filed under: Music,Pop Culture — Dan @ 1:26 am

Everyone knows cicadas love to sing (the males) or be serenaded (the females).

A lot of people like to write songs inspired by cicadas. If you search online music stores or YouTube, you’ll find hundreds of songs about cicadas, in every genre imaginable including rap, country, rock, folk, dance, parody, classical and experimental.

Here are some cicada songs:

Laura Imbruglia sings her song Cicada on a talk show for teens (YouTube Link):

(You might want to skip ahead 20 seconds to when the music starts.)

Here’s one of my favorite bands, Southern Culture on the Skids peforming their song Cicada Rock (YouTube link):

CICADA Song – SICKA CICADAS by Kathy Ashworth:

Not quite a song, but still very much an audio performance about cicadas: Tessa Farmer and David Rothenberg perform Magicicada in Dublin (YouTube Link):

Do you have a favorite cicada song? Let us know in the comments!

Bonus: Another cicada song send by a reader:

CICADA by Liam Titcomb (YouTube link):

And more:

Seventeen Years (a cicada love song) – Lloyd H. Miller (YouTube Link):

Baby Bug by Samm Bennett:

“Seventeen Years” by Jen Schaffer and the Shiners:

I Ate A Cicada Today:

Periodic Cicadas by Dr. Chordate:

No video for this song, but Dr Chordate wrote a song called Periodic Cicadas.

March 13, 2016

The 17-Year Locust Tour by The Agency

Filed under: Music — Dan @ 7:12 pm

I buy things just because they’re cicada related.

Here is my latest purchase:

The Agency

This week I bought The 17-Year Locust Tour by the band The Agency. It was recorded in Leetown, West Virginia, and copyrighted in 1993. Periodical cicadas are known as “17-Year Locusts” in the U.S., which is where this band got the name for the album. My guess is the album title was inspired by the Brood XIV emergence of 1991.

I haven’t yet listened to the album from start to finish but it falls into the hard rock genre.

The artwork is very nice and was done by bassist and singer Paul Sager using Corel Draw. I used Corel Draw to create the first Cicada Mania logo.

March 2, 2016

What do cicadas symbolize?

Filed under: FAQs — Dan @ 4:34 am

You might ask, what do cicadas symbolize? What are cicadas a metaphor for?

2005-dantibicen-7

Cicadas, for many, represent personal change, renewal, rebirth, and transformation.

Unlike a butterfly, moth or other insect that undergoes complete metamorphosis, cicadas have no pupal state. They transform from one fully-functioning state (instar) to another — one viable form, in a small amount of time, changing to another. The cicada’s transformation is closer to that of a human beings. If a person wants or needs to make a change in their life, they don’t enclose themselves in a pod and emerge the next spring (I suppose some might) — more likely they remain in their human form as they change.

A lot of people use cicadas to symbolize their own personal transformation, in art, song, poetry or even a tattoo. The cicada inherently symbolizes what they were (nymph) and all the glory of what they have become (adult form).


Watch some cicada transformations:

February 7, 2016

The Periodical Cicada Brood VII Revisited

Filed under: Brood VII,Magicicada,Periodical — Dan @ 9:22 pm

The Internet Archive has a lot of cicada documents and information, including a growing collection of articles from journals.

Today I came across a paper about Brood VII called The Periodical Cicada Brood vii Revisited (Homoptera, Cicadidae) by L. L. Pechuman, published in 1985 in the journal Entomology News (link to the article). Brood VII will be back in New York in 2018 (not too far away) so I’m glad I found this now. Brood VII is interesting because it is geographically isolated from other broods, near the Finger Lakes area of New York. This always makes me wonder what happened that led to their isolation (glacial melting, a massive die off of host trees… who knows).

The article is a quick, but melancholy read — unfortunately Brood VII is a small and dwindling brood; it has gone extinct in many areas, and has suffered over-predation by birds in recent emergences. “Populations were just not high enough to support ‘predator satiation'”, according to L. L. Pechuman.

People who witness massive periodical cicada emergences would never think that they were a fragile insect, but they are and papers like this make that fact abundantly clear.

February 1, 2016

Cicada Fireworks 🎆

Filed under: Pop Culture,Roy Troutman,Video — Dan @ 1:01 am

Update! New packaging for the Clustering Cicada fireworks (thx Roy). Find it here.

cicada fireworks

The Fourth of July should be fun this year at Roy Troutman’s place. Check out the Clustering Cicada fireworks he found.

Cicada Fireworks

Video of “Chirping Cicada” firework by Roy

“Chirping Cicada” firework from Roy Troutman

Here is a video shot on the 4th of July of a mutli shot cake called the Chirping Cicada.

January 28, 2016

Snapchat

Filed under: Cicada Mania — Dan @ 7:28 pm

I joined snapchat as “cicadamania”. I probably will wait until the spring to snap anything interesting (and just cicada stuff).

snapchat

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