Common cicadas of Prince Edward Island (PE)
Neotibicen canicularis (Harris, 1841) aka Dog-day Cicada
Name and Location References:
- Full Binomial Names: ITIS.gov
- Common names & locations: BugGuide.net; iNaturalist.com; The Songs of Insects by Lang Elliott and Wil Herschberger; my personal memory.
- Locations: Biogeography of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, North of Mexico by Allen F. Sanborn and Polly K. Phillips.
- List of species with MAPs: Biogeography of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, North of Mexico [PDF] by Allen F. Sanborn and Polly K. Phillips. Download it once; treasure it forever.
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These sites contain information about both periodical and annual cicada species:
- Oaklahoma Cicadas: exceptional photos of Oklahoma’s 51 cicadas. PHOTOS
- Long Island Cicadas: cicadas of Long Island, NY, plus New Jersey and Pennsylvania PHOTOS
- Visit Tim McNary’s Bibliography of the Cicadoidea for many, many cicada papers and articles.
- Insect Singers. A new site from David Marshall and Kathy Hill featuring dozens of cicada song samples from North America.AUDIO PHOTOS
- Cicada Central (uconn.edu) One of the premier cicada sites. Many pictures, maps and information. Superb Magicicada information. PHOTOS MAPS
- Singing Insects of North America (ufl.edu) A large site featuring lists of North American species and audio files. PHOTOS AUDIO
- Bug Guide (bugguide.net) A massive site devoted insect identification, including an abundance of cicada photos and information. You’ll find Cacama, Diceroprocta, Magicicada (Periodical Cicadas), Neocicada, Neoplatypedia, Okanagana, Pacarina, Platypedia, Tibicen, Beameria and Okanagodes. PHOTOS
- Massachusetts Cicadas (www.masscic.org) tremendous cicada site packed with information
and photos. Dozens of pages of information. Tibicens, Magicicada, Cicada Killer wasps. PHOTOS
- Gene Kritsky’s Web Site (msj.edu) Gene Kritsky is one of the worlds foremost cicada researchers. Book him for your next cicada event.
- Cicadas of the Mid-Atlantic (cicadas.info) Sighting information for Magicicada and annual cicadas in the Mid-Atlantic region. Yearly cicada reports are available. PHOTOS
- Checklist of Cicadas of Kansas (windsofkansas.com, archive.org) A list of species you’ll find in Kansas, references, photos and illustrations. PHOTOS ILLUSTRATIONS
- Guide d’identification d’insectes du Quebec (lesinsectesduquebec.com) En Francais. Canicularis and Okanagana rimosa info and photos. PHOTOS AUDIO
- Homoptera: cicadas, hoppers, & aphids (ltreadwell.ifas.ufl.edu) Information about the Homoptera order, photos and illustrations. PHOTOS ILLUSTRATIONS
- Insect Images (insectimages.org) About 150 North American cicada photos, including Magicicada, Tibicen, Okanagana, and Cacama. PHOTOS
- Gordon’s Cicada Page (earthlife.net) A photo and about 10 printed pages worth of solid cicada information. PHOTOS
- The University of Michigan Cicada Pages (ummz.lsa.umich.edu, archive.org) The premier North America cicada site, until Cicada Central and Cicadas @ UCONN (formerly Magicicada.org) came around. Magicicada, Tibicen, Okanagana, Diceroprocta. PHOTOS AUDIO MAPS
- Great Lakes Cicada Website (NEW SITE)
- Cicadas @ UCONN (formerly Magicicada.org) is devoted to monitoring emergences and providing Magicicada information. AUDIO PHOTOS MAPS. They have a Facebook page too.
- Periodical Cicada (ag.umass.edu) Many nice photos depicting the cicada’s life cycle, and good information. PHOTOS
- Periodical Cicadas (biology.clc.uc.edu – link goes to archive.org) A fun and informative periodical cicada page with many excellent photos, recipes and 19 paragraphs of information. PHOTOS
- Return of the Cicada! Serious information mixed with humor and silly illustrations. (whyfiles.org) PHOTOS ILLUSTRATIONS
- Seventeen Year Cicada (seventeenyearcicada.com) Dozens of Magicicada photos and info. PHOTOS
- Annual Cicadas of Arkansas (angelfire.com) Photos and information about Tibicen robinsonianus (formerly T. robinsoniana), Tibicen dorsatus (formerly T. dorsata), Tibicen pruinosus (formerly T. pruinosa), Tibicen lyricen, Tibicen davisi, Tibicen auletes, & Tibicen aurifera. PHOTOS
- Apache cicada, Diceroprocta apache (fireflyforest.net) A photo and 3 paragraphs of information. PHOTOS
- This page features a summary of the Diceroprocta species
- Colorado State University Extension cicada page (colostate.edu) Includes a picture of Putnam’s cicada and a paragraph of information within 3 pages of various information about cicadas. PHOTOS
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Now is a great time to look and listen for Tibicen cicadas in North America. Tibicen are the medium to large sized annual cicadas. Typically they are well camouflaged – with colors like black, white, green & brown.
During the day you can listen for them, of course, and spot them that way. Try Insect Singers for cicada songs. You can also look for their exuvia (skins), and if you’re lucky you can catch on on a low branch.
Last night I started looking around 10pm and found three Swamp Cicadas (T. tibicen tibicen) shedding their skins on trees around the yard. I also collected about 30 exuvia (skins). All in a quarter acre yard. Take a look at this video:
Swamp Cicada shedding its nymphal skin from Cicada Mania on Vimeo.
Download the PDF here: www.cicadamania.com/downloads/diversity-05-00166.pdf.
We are excited to announce the availability of a document by Allen F. Sanborn and Polly K. Phillips titled Biogeography of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, North of Mexico. This document features distribution maps for North American cicada species! This document is an excellent companion to The Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea: Cicadidae) of North America North of Mexico by Allen F. Sanborn and Maxine S. Heath (link to that book).
Abstract: We describe and illustrate the biogeography of the cicadas inhabiting continental North America, north of Mexico. Species distributions were determined through our collecting efforts as well as label data from more than 110 institutional collections. The status of subspecies is discussed with respect to their distributions. As we have shown over limited geographic areas, the distribution of individual species is related to the habitat in which they are found. We discuss the biogeography of the genera with respect to their phylogenetic relationships. California is the state with the greatest alpha diversity (89 species, 46.6% of taxa) and unique species (35 species, 18.3% of taxa). Texas, Arizona, Colorado and Utah are the states with the next greatest alpha diversity with Texas, Arizona and Utah being next for unique species diversity. Maine, New Hampshire and Rhode Island are the states with the least amount of cicada diversity. Diversity is greatest in states and areas where there is a diversity of plant communities and habitats within these communities. Mountainous terrain also coincides with increases in diversity. Several regions of the focus area require additional collection efforts to fill in the distributions of several species.
Keywords: cicada; distribution; Diceroprocta; Tibicen; Okanagana; Okanagodes; Cacama; Magicicada; Platypedia; Cicadetta
An example of a map from the document:
Two relatively new cicada publications that should be worth reading:
1) Avian Predation Pressure as a Potential Driver of Periodical Cicada Cycle Length by Walter D. Koenig and Andrew M. Liebhold, The American Naturalist. This is a newly electronically published paper about what drives the long, prime-numbered lifecycle of Magicicada periodical cicadas.
The extraordinarily long life cycles, synchronous emergences at 13- or 17-year intervals, and complex geographic distribution of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in eastern North America are a long-standing evolutionary enigma. Although a variety of factors, including satiation of aboveground predators and avoidance of interbrood hybridization, have been hypothesized to shape the evolution of this system, no empirical support for these mechanisms has previously been reported, beyond the observation that bird predation can extirpate small, experimentally mistimed emergences. Here we show that periodical cicada emergences appear to set populations of potential avian predators on numerical trajectories that result in significantly lower potential predation pressure during the subsequent emergence. This result provides new support for the importance of predators in shaping periodical cicada life history, offers an ecological rationale for why emergences are synchronized at the observed multiyear intervals, and may explain some of the developmental plasticity observed in these unique insects.
Order it from JSTOR.
2) The Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea: Cicadidae) of N. America North of Mexico by Allen F. Sanborn and Maxine S. Heath. 227 pages.
A comprehensive review of the North Amerian cicada fauna that provides information on synonymies, type localities, and type material. There are 170 species and 21 subspecies found in continental N. America north of Mexico. The book has 211 figures with each species photographed in color.
Buy it from the Entomological Society of America website. I’ve already ordered mine.
I can’t wait for Sanborn’s book on Central and South America (hopefully, that will arrive within the next few years).
I’ve received Allen F. Sanborn and Maxine S. Heath’s book. It’s focus is on identifying all species of cicada fauna in North America, north of Mexico, as the title says. It also identifies species that were reported to exist in this location, but do not. The book provides maps and common attributes of each genus of cicada, and then for each species it provides photos of the holotype (and the location of the holotype), as well as a history of its taxonomy.
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