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Magicicada septendecim

A 13 Year Cicada from Ohio.
Photo by Roy Troutman.

All three major periodical cicada emergences should be over by now, but make sure you look out for flagging (browning of leaves from egg laying).

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What are Cicadas?

The Basics


An illustration of cicada tymbals from C.L. Marlatt's The Periodical Cicada. c shows the muscles and tendons connected to the tymbals, and d & e show the bending of the tymbal.

Cicadas are insects, best known for the sounds made by male cicadas. The males make this sound by flexing their tymbals, which are drum-like organs found in their abdomens. Small muscles rapidly pull the tymbals in and out of shape — like a child's click-toy. The sound is intensified by the cicada's mostly hollow abdomen. Female cicadas also make a sound by flicking their wings, but it isn't the same as the song cicadas are known for. Listen to some of the songs cicadas sing.

A feeding cicada

A Magicicada drinking from a tree. Photo by Roy Troutman.

Cicadas belong to the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha, superfamily Cicadoidea and families Cicadidae (the vast majority of cicadas) or Tettigarctidae (only two species). Leafhoppers, spittle bugs and jumping plant lice are close relatives of the cicada. Hemiptera are different from other insects in that both the nymph and adult forms have a beak (aka rostrum), which they use to suck fluids called xylem from plants. This is how they both eat and drink.

The origin of the word cicada is not 100% clear however it appears to be based on the Latin word for cicada. This makes sense as there were certainly plenty of cicadas in the days of Rome. Cicadas are called semi in Japan, cigale in France, and cigarra in Spain.

More information about:

Life Cycle

Cicadas begin life as a rice-shaped egg, which the female deposits in a groove she makes in a tree limb, using her ovipositor. The groove provides shelter and exposes the tree fluids, which the young cicadas feed on. These grooves can kill small branches. When the branches die and leaves turn brown, it is called flagging.

Once the egg hatches the cicada begins to feed on the tree fluids. At this point it looks like a termite or small white ant. Once the young cicada is ready, it crawls from the groove and falls to the ground where it will dig until it finds roots to feed on. Once roots are found the cicada will stay underground from 2 to 17 years depending on the species.

After the long 2 to 17 years, cicadas emerge from the ground as nymphs. Nymphs climb the nearest available tree, and begin to shed their nymph exoskeleton. Free of their old skin, their wings will inflate with fluid and their new skin can harden. Once their new wings and body are ready, they can begin their brief adult life.

Adult cicadas, also called imagoes, spend their time in trees looking for a mate. Males sing, females respond, mating begins, and the cycle of life begins again.

Cicada Life Cycle
Top, Left to Right: cicada egg, freshly hatched nymph, 2nd and 3rd instar nymphs. Bottom, Left to Right: 4th instar nymph, teneral adult, adult. (Photos by Roy Troutman and Elias Bonaros).

Different Types of Life Cycles

There are three types of cicada life cycles:

  1. Annual: Cicada species with annual life cycles emerge every year, for example, Swamp Cicadas (Tibicen tibicen) emerge every year in the United States.
  2. Periodical: Cicadas species with periodical life cycles emerge all together after long periods of time, for example, Magicicada septendecim will emerge every 17 years (Find out where they'll emerge next).
  3. Proto-periodical: Cicada species with proto-periodical life cycles might emerge every year, but every so many years they emerge in heavy numbers, like the Okanagana.

Different Varieties

There are over 170 species of cicada in North America, and over 2000 species around the world. Cicadas exist on every continent but Antarctica.

The world's largest species of cicada is the Pomponia imperatoria, which is native to Malaysia. See a photo of a Pomponia imperatoria. The largest species of the Americas is Quesada gigas, aka Giant Cicada.

According to the University of Florida Book of Insect Records, the Tibicen pronotalis [walkeri] is the loudest cicada, in North America, and can achieve 108.9 decibels. Australian species of cicadas, like the Double Drummer (Thopa saccata) are said to exceed 120 deafening decibels.

The most well-known cicadas in the North America are the Magicicada periodical cicadas, which have amazingly long 17 or 13 year lifecycles. Brood III (17-year) Magicicada will emerge in Iowa, Illinois and Missouri, and Brood XXII (13-year) will emerge in Louisiana and Mississippi, in 2014. Read more about where and when.

Most species of cicadas in North America are not periodical cicadas. Most are annual cicadas, such as Tibicen, Neocicada, Diceroprocta, and the proto-periodical Okanagana.

The cicada information on Cicada Mania is not limited to North America. We have cicada photos and information for Australia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Japan, Spain, Thailand and other locations, thanks to contributors around the world.

More information:

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These links will get you to the most popular content on Cicada Mania:

  1. Where the Periodical cicadas will appear next, including Brood Maps.
  2. Cicada Songs: Audio of cicada songs, and links to cicada song websites.
  3. Frequently Asked Questions about cicadas. Includes periodical cicada and general cicada FAQs.
  4. The Most Interesting 17 Year Cicada Facts
  5. Cicada Photos and Images: Over 1000 cicada photos!
  6. Do cicadas bite or sting?
  7. The Cicada Mania Blog: up to date cicada news and information.
  8. U.S.A. and Canada Cicada Search
  9. Genera and Species
  10. Magicicada Video