Cicada Mania

Dedicated to cicadas, the most amazing insects in the world.

May 8, 2022

Magicicada stragglers found in 2022

Filed under: Magicicada | Periodical Stragglers — Dan @ 7:26 am

Here’s the latest map of stragglers from Gene for June 1st:

June 1 map

Gene Kristsky let us know that people are finding Magicada stragglers and reporting them on iNaturalist. It looks like most of the stragglers are in the Brood XIX area currently, but as temperatures warm, we might see others from other Broods.

Be on the lookout in 2022 (or any year)! Any place you see a red dot is a possibility. Even central Massachusettes (former home of Brood XI) and Ontario — maybe so.

Possbile Straggler Locations

Straggler-related facts:

What is a Magicicada:
A Magicicada is a genus of cicada that lives in the United States that typically emerges in 17 or 13-year cycles depending on the species.

They look like this:
Brood X header

What is a Brood:
A Brood is a numbered group of Magicicada cicadas that emerge in a specific series of years.
Example: Brood X (X is the Roman numeral for 10) emerges every 17 years, i.e. 2021, 2038, 2055, etc.

What is a Straggler:
A Straggler is a Magicicada that emerges earlier or later than anticipated.
Example: If a Brood XIX (13-year, next due in 2024) cicada emerges in 2022, we can say it is a straggler that emerged 2 years early.
Stragglers that emerge earlier than expected have also been called “precursors” (Marlatt 1898). I also call them “pioneers”.

April 13, 2022

Cicada Nypmhs

Filed under: Nymphs — Dan @ 8:46 pm

Monday I was doing some landscaping and I found these Magicicada nymphs feeding on the roots of a boxwood shrub. They appear to be third-instar Brood II Magicicada nymphs. 9 years old!

3rd instar Magicicada nymph

3rd instar Magicicada nymph

March 27, 2022

Cicada research published in 2022

Filed under: Papers and Documents — Dan @ 6:26 pm

This is a list of cicada-related research published so far in 2022. 46!

November 2022

  1. Haji, D., Vailionis, J., Stukel, M. et al. Lack of host phylogenetic structure in the gut bacterial communities of New Zealand cicadas and their interspecific hybrids. Sci Rep 12, 20559 (2022). www.nature.com.

October 2022

  1. Allen M. Young, Aiden S. Mahoney, and Jason Canfield “A Multi-year Adult Emergence Study of the Cicada Neotibicen canicularis (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) in Wisconsin,” The American Midland Naturalist 188(2), 250-258, (20 October 2022). bioone.org
  2. Hasan, Cecilia & Sutton, Reagan & Replogle, Jessica. (2022). The Presence of Wolbachia in Brood X Cicadas. www.researchgate.net.
  3. Brumfield, K.D., Raupp, M.J., Haji, D. et al. Gut microbiome insights from 16S rRNA analysis of 17-year periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.) Broods II, VI, and X. Sci Rep 12, 16967 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-20527-7. www.nature.com.
  4. Costa, G. J., Nunes, V. L., Marabuto, E., Mendes, R., Silva, D. N., Pons, P., Bas, J. M., Hertach, T., Paulo, O. S., & Simões, P. C. (2023). The effect of the Messinian salinity crisis on the early diversification of the Tettigettalna cicadas. Zoologica Scripta, 52, 100– 116. onlinelibrary.wiley.com
  5. Allison M Roth, Sarah M Kent, Elizabeth A Hobson, Gene Kritsky, Shinichi Nakagawa, Personality-mediated speed-accuracy tradeoffs in mating in a 17-year periodical cicada, Behavioral Ecology, Volume 33, Issue 6, November/December 2022, Pages 1141–1152. academic.oup.com
  6. Hoa Quynh Nguyen, Erick Kim, Yoonhyuk Bae, Soyeon Chae, Seongmin Ji, Jiman Heo, Sungsik Kong, Thoa Kim Nguyen, Thai Hong Pham, Yikweon Jang, An effective method for accurate nymphal-stage delimitation of the cicada Hyalessa fuscata, Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, Volume 25, Issue 3, 2022, 101952, www.sciencedirect.com.

September 2022

  1. Bergh, James & Nita, M. & Dyer, J.E. & Brandt, S.N. & Cullum, John & Nixon, Laura & Leskey, Tracy. (2022). Spatial distribution of 17-year periodical cicada (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) exuviae and oviposition injury in Mid-Atlantic, USA Apple orchards and implications for management. Crop Protection. 162. 106095. 10.1016/j.cropro.2022.106095. sciencedirect.com.
  2. Diler Haji, Jason Vailionis, Mark Stukel et al. Correlates of host-associated bacterial diversity in New Zealand cicadas and hybrids, 22 September 2022, PREPRINT (Version 1) available at Research Square [https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1875558/v1] www.researchsquare.com
  3. Kriesberg, Caleb. (2022). Protandrous Arrival in a Population of the Periodical Cicada Magicicada septendecim (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) in Montgomery County, Maryland: Addendum to METHODS and RESULTS Sections. researchgate.net.
  4. J.C. Bergh, M. Nita, J.E. Dyer, S.N. Brandt, J.P. Cullum, L.J. Nixon, T.C. Leskey, Spatial distribution of 17-year periodical cicada (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) exuviae and oviposition injury in Mid-Atlantic, USA Apple orchards and implications for management, Crop Protection, Volume 162, 2022, 106095. www.sciencedirect.com
  5. Max Moulds, Michael Frese & M. R. McCurry (2022) New cicada fossils from Australia (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea: Cicadidae) with remarkably detailed wing surface nanostructure, Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, www.tandfonline.com
  6. Kriesberg, Caleb. (2022). Emergence Patterns and Species Distribution of the Brood X 17-Year Periodical Cicada, Magicicada, Davis (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), near Downtown Silver Spring, Montgomery County, Maryland, 2021. 8. 2. www.researchgate.net.
  7. Gurcel, Kevin & Stéphane, Puissant. (2022). Une Cigale dans le blanc des yeux : synopsis d’une aberration chromatique très rare chez Cicadetta montana (Scopoli, 1772) (Hemiptera, Cicadidae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France. 127. 259-271. www.researchgate.net.

August 2022

  1. Moulds, Max & MARSHALL, DAVID. (2022). New genera and new species of Western Australian cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae). Zootaxa. 5174. 451-507. 10.11646/zootaxa.5174.5.1. mapress.com.
  2. Takahiro Ishimaru, Ikkyu Aihara. (2022). Temporal structure of two call types produced by competing for male cicadas. bioRXiv. www.biorxiv.org (preprint).
  3. Sota, T. (2022). Life-cycle control of 13- and 17-year periodical cicadas: A hypothesis and its implication in the evolutionary process. Ecological Research, 37( 6), 686– 700. esj-journals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com
  4. Cassandra L. Ettinger, Brian Lovett, Matt T. Kasson, Jason E. Stajich. (2022). Metagenome-Assembled Genomes of Bacteria Associated with Massospora cicadina Fungal Plugs from Infected Brood VIII Periodical Cicadas. Microbiology Resource Announcements. e00413-22. 11. 10. journals.asm.org.
  5. Jason E. Stajich, Brian Lovett, Cassandra L. Ettinger, Derreck A. Carter-House, Tania Kurbessoian, Matt T. Kasson. (2022). An Improved 1.5-Gigabase Draft Assembly of Massospora cicadina (Zoopagomycota), an Obligate Fungal Parasite of 13- and 17-Year Cicadas. Microbiology Resource Announcements. e00367-22. 11. 10. journals.asm.org.

July 2022

June 2022

  1. Giroux, Marjolaine & Legault, Audrey & Bede, J.C.. (2022). Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) attracted to dog-day cicada (Neotibicen canicularis (Harris) Hemiptera: Cicadidae) carcasses in Québec, Canada. 2022. researchgate.net.
  2. Hong, Jung-Hee & Lee, Young-Cheol. (2022). Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cicadidae Periostracum Extract and Oleic Acid through Inhibiting Inflammatory Chemokines Using PCR Arrays in LPS-Induced Lung inflammation In Vitro. Life. 12. 857. 10.3390/life12060857. mdpi.com.
  3. Lalremsanga, H.T. & Muansanga, Lal & Malsawmdawngliana, Fanai & Khawlhring, Marova. (2022). A report on the occurrence of the cicada Callogaeana festiva (Fabricius, 1803) (Insecta: Cicadidae) from Mizoram, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 14. 21321-21323. 10.11609/jott.7550.14.6.21321-21323. threatenedtaxa.org.
  4. Li, Qian & Ji, Aihong & Shen, Huan & Han, Qingfei & Qin, Guodong. (2022). The forewing of a black cicada Cryptotympana atrata (Hemiptera, Homoptera: Cicadidae): Microscopic structures and mechanical properties. Microscopy Research and Technique. 85. 10.1002/jemt.24173. analyticalsciencejournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com.
  5. Luu, Hoang & Pham, Thai & Bui, Thu. (2022). Research on assessment of the diversity and similarity of cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) in the Northwest region. Ministry of Science and Technology, Vietnam. 64. 27-31. 10.31276/VJST.64(1).27-31. vjst.vn.
  6. Luu, Hoang & Pham, Thai & Bui, Thu. (2022). The composition and distribution of the Cicadidae family (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) from Northwestern in Vietnam. Ministry of Science and Technology, Vietnam. 64. 24-27. 10.31276/VJST.64(6).24-27. vjst.vn.
  7. Mora-Rubio, Carlos. (2022). Contributions to the distribution of the Iberian endemism Hilaphura varipes (Hemiptera, Cicadidae). Boletin – Asociacion Espanola de Entomologia. 46. 77-82. researchgate.net
  8. Owen, Christopher & Marshall, David & Wade, Elizabeth & Meister, Russ & Goemans, Geert & Kunte, Krushnamegh & Moulds, Max & Hill, Kathy & Villet, Martin & Pham, Thai & Kortyna, Michelle & Lemmon, Emily & Lemmon, Alan & Simon, Chris. (2022). Detecting and Removing Sample Contamination in Phylogenomic Data: An Example and its Implications for Cicadidae Phylogeny (Insecta: Hemiptera). Systematic Biology. 10.1093/sysbio/syac043. academic.oup.com.
  9. Wang Cheng-Bin, ??? & Liu, Peng-Yu. (2022). A new species of Polyneura Westwood, 1842 from Yunnan, China (Hemiptera, Cicadidae, Cicadinae). Biodiversity Data Journal. 10. 84554. 10.3897/BDJ.10.e84554. pensoft.net. Image.

May 2022

  1. Brown, Daniel & Kotsani, Natalia. (2022). A Stochastic Modeling of the Cicada Chorus. www.researchgate.net
  2. Figueroa-Rodríguez, Rosa & Gálvez-Marroquín, Luis & Martinez, Misael & Cruz López, Jesús Alberto & Ariza-Flores, Rafael & Alonso, Moises & Sánchez-García, José & García-Mayoral, Luis. (2022). Quantification of direct and indirect damage caused by Diceroprocta bulgara (Distant) (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) in lime. Agro Productividad. 10.32854/agrop.v15i4.2054. revista-agroproductividad.org.
  3. Heath, James & Heath, Maxine & Sanborn, Allen. (2022). Cold cicadas and hot rocks: Thermal responses and thermoregulation in some New Zealand cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettinae: Cicadettini). Journal of Thermal Biology. 107. 103273. 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2022.103273. sciencedirect.com.
  4. Lee, Young June. (2022). A new genus and species of the subtribe Leptopsaltriina (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Leptopsaltriini) from Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity. 15. 10.1016/j.japb.2022.05.006. sciencedirect.com.
  5. Popple, Lindsay & Emery, David. (2022). Five new species of Yoyetta Moulds (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettinae) from south-eastern Australia. Zootaxa. 5141. 401-441. 10.11646/zootaxa.5141.5.1. mapress.com.
  6. Setälä, Heikki, Szlavecz, Katalin, Pullen, Jamie D., Parker, John D., Huang, Yumei, Chang, Chih-Han. 2022. Acute Resource Pulses from Periodical Cicadas Propagate to Belowground Food Webs but Do Not Affect Tree Performance. Ecology e3773. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3773 esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com

April 2022

  1. Marshall, David C. On the spelling of the name of Cassin’s 17-Year Cicada, Magicicada cassini (Fisher, 1852) (Hemiptera: Cicadidae). 2022. Zootaxa 5125 (2): 241–245. 10.11646/zootaxa.5125.2.8 mapress.com.
  2. Moulds, Max & Marshall, David & Hutchinson, Paul. (2022). Pericallea katherina, a new cicada genus and species from Western Australia (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettini). Australian Entomologist. 49. 1-14. researchgate.net.
  3. Shi, Peijian & Jiao, Yabing & Niklas, Karl & Li, Yirong & Guo, Xuchen & Yu, Kexin & Chen, Long & Hurd, Lawrence. (2022). Sexual Dimorphism in Body Size and Wing Loading for Three Cicada Species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. academic.oup.com/.

March 2022

  1. Belenguier, Luc. (2022). Tettigettalna argentata (Olivier 1790) (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), une nouvelle cigale pour le département de l’Allier. BIOM – Revue scientifique pour la biodiversité du Massif central. 3. revues.bu.uca.fr.
  2. Emery, David & Emery, Nathan & Hutchinson, Paul & Ong, Simon. (2022). Two new species of Tryella Moulds, 2003 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from Western Australia and Northern Territory. Australian Entomologist. 49. 23-42. researchgate.net.
  3. Liang, Shih-Hsiung & Lee, Lin-Lee & Shieh, Bao-Sen. (2022). Female preference for song frequency in the cicada Mogannia formosana Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadidae). Behavioural Processes. 197. 104626. sciencedirect.com.
  4. Maes, Jean. (2022). Zammara smaragdula (Homoptera: Cicadidae) reporte nuevo para la fauna de Nicaragua 1. REVISTA NICARAGUENSE DE ENTOMOLOGIA, 268.. 267. 1-22. 10.5281/zenodo.6554509. zenodo.org.
  5. Yen, Luu & Pham, Thai & Constant, Jérôme. (2022). A NEW SPECIES OF Platylomia Stål, 1870 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) FROM VIETNAM, WITH A KEY TO SPECIES. ACADEMIA JOURNAL OF BIOLOGY. 44. 23-31. 10.15625/2615-9023/16757. vjs.ac.vn.

February 2022

  1. ?, ??. (2022). Enrichment and Screening of Several Micronutrients in Cicada Flower Fruiting Body. Hans Journal of Food and Nutrition Science. 11. 21-26. hanspub.org.
  2. Perkovich, C., & Ward, D. (2022). Changes in white oak (Quercus alba) phytochemistry in response to periodical cicadas: Before, during, and after an emergence. Ecology and Evolution, 12, e8839. onlinelibrary.wiley.com
  3. Shi, Cuie & Song, Wenlong & Gao, Jian & Yan, Shoubao & Guo, Chen & Zhang, Tengfei. (2022). Enhanced production of cordycepic acid from Cordyceps cicadae isolated from a wild environment. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
  4. sciencedirect.com.

January 2022

  1. Hoang Yen Luu, Hong Thai Pham, Thu Quynh Bui. Research on assessment of the diversity and similarity of cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) in the Northwest region. Vietnam Forest Museum, Forestry Inventory and Planning Institute. Vietnam National Museum of Nature, VAST3. Graduate University of Science and Technology, VAST Received 8 November 2021; accepted 14 December 2021. vjst.vn.

Megatibicen auletes singing at dusk in Brendan T Byrne State Park in New Jersey on July 15th 2021

Filed under: Cryptotympanini | Megatibicen | Sounds | United States | Video — Tags: — Dan @ 6:46 am

Here’s a video of a Megatibicen auletes cicada singing at dusk in Brendan T Byrne State Park in New Jersey on July 15th, 2021.

Neotibicen lyricen molting in New Jersey July 2021

Filed under: Cryptotympanini | Molting | Neotibicen | Nymphs | Teneral | United States — Dan @ 5:39 am

Here are some Neotibicen lyricen molting in New Jersey July 2021.

Rich caramel eyes; blues & pinks in pronotal collar, legs, and mesonotum; green wings (that will stay green) and orange abdomen.

Neotibicen lyricen New Jersey July 2021

Neotibicen lyricen New Jersey July 2021

Neotibicen lyricen New Jersey July 2021 02

Molting Neotibicen tibicen cicadas

Filed under: Cryptotympanini | Molting | Neotibicen | Teneral | United States — Tags: — Dan @ 5:10 am

Here’s some photos of Molting Neotibicen tibicen tibicen cicadas taken in New Jersey in July of 2021.

Neotibicen tibicen tibicen July 2021

Neotibicen tibicen tibicen July 2021

Neotibicen tibicen tibicen July 2021

Neotibicen tibicen tibicen July 2021

Neotibicen tibicen tibicen July 2021

Neotibicen tibicen tibicen July 2021

February 26, 2022

Unique Cicada website from Japan

Filed under: Japan — Dan @ 9:18 am

Unique Cicada” (that is how Chrome translates it) is a large blog featuring many photos of cicadas from around the world. The site is owned by @musinomushi on Twitter. Instantly one of the premier cicada websites.

The site is categorized by cicada tribes, for example, Carinetini, Cryptotympanini and Zammarini.

Here’s what it looks like translated to English by Chrome.
Unique Cicada

January 30, 2022

What are cicadas?

Filed under: FAQs — Dan @ 1:02 pm

Magicicada septendecim
Magicicada septendecim aka 17-year Pharaoh Cicada.

Cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadidae) are insects, best known for the songs sung by most, but not all, male cicadas. Males sing by flexing their tymbals, which are drum-like organs found in their abdomens. Small muscles rapidly pull the tymbals in and out of shape. The cicada’s primarily hollow abdomen intensifies the sound.

tymbals
An illustration of cicada tymbals from C.L. Marlatt’s The Periodical Cicada. c shows the muscles and tendons connected to the tymbals, and d & e shows the bending of the tymbal.

Female and some male cicadas will also make a sound by flicking their wings, but it isn’t the same as the sound for which cicadas are known. Listen to some of the songs cicadas sing.

Cicadas belong to the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha, superfamily Cicadoidea and families Cicadidae (the vast majority of cicadas) or Tettigarctidae (only two species). There are five subfamilies of Cicadidae: Derotettiginae, Tibicininae, Tettigomyiinae, Cicadettinae, and Cicadinae. Leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and jumping plant lice are close relatives of the cicada. Hemiptera is different from other insects in that both the nymph and adult forms have a beak (aka rostrum), which they use to suck fluids called xylem from plants. This is how they both eat and drink.

A feeding cicada.
A Magicicada drinking from a tree. Photo by Roy Troutman.

The body of a cicada is composed of a head, thorax & abdomen. The head features two antennae, two compound eyes, three simple eyes (ocelli), a clypeus that connects the beak to the head (the clypeus looks like the grill of a combustion vehicle). The thorax features two sets of wings (forewings & hindwings), six sets of legs, spiracles for breathing, opercula covering the tympana (“eardrums”), and in males of species that have them, tymbals & tymbal covers. The abdomen features tergites (dorsal) & sternites (ventral), more spiracles for breathing, and reproductive organs. Cicadidae and Tettigarctidae have major differences in anatomy, which you can learn about here.

The Latin root for the word for cicada is cicada. Cicadas are called semi in Japan, cigale in France, and cigarra in Spain. Names for cicadas in countries around the world. The pronunciation of the word cicada depends on your local dialect. You can say “si-Kah-da” or “si-kay-da”.

Cicada Life Cycle

Filed under: Life Cycle — Dan @ 12:57 pm

Cicada Life Cycle
Top row, left to right: cicada egg (Roy Troutman), freshly hatched nymph (Roy Troutman), second and third instar nymphs (Elias Bonaros). Bottom row, left to right: fourth instar nymph, teneral adult, adult. (Cicada Mania).

Cicadas begin life as a rice-shaped egg, which the female deposits in a groove she makes in a tree limb, using her ovipositor. The groove provides shelter and exposes the tree fluids, which the young cicadas feed on. These grooves can kill small branches. When the branches die and the leaves turn brown, it is called flagging.

Once the cicada hatches from the egg it will begin to feed on the tree fluids. At this point, it looks like a termite or a small white ant. Once the young cicada is ready, it crawls from the groove and falls to the ground where it will dig until it finds roots to feed on. It will typically start with smaller roots of grasses and work its way up to the roots of its host tree. The cicada will stay underground from 2 to 17 years depending on the species. Cicadas are active underground, tunneling, feeding, and not sleeping or hibernating as commonly thought. Cicadas go through multiple phases, called instars, while underground. Magicicada have five instars.

After the long 2 to 17 years, cicadas emerge from the ground as nymphs. Nymphs climb the nearest available vertical surface (usually a plant) and begin to shed their nymph exoskeleton. Free of their old skin, their wings will inflate with fluid (hemolymph) and their adult skin will harden (sclerotize). Once their new wings and body are ready, they can begin their brief adult life.

Adult cicadas, also called imagoes, spend their time in trees looking for a mate. Males sing (or otherwise vibrate the air or their surroundings), females respond, mating begins, and the cycle of life begins again.

How Many Species of Cicadas Are There?

Filed under: Genera — Dan @ 12:35 pm

There are over 190 varieties (including species & subspecies) of cicadas in North America, and over 3,390 varieties of cicadas around the world. This number grows each year as researchers discover and document new species. Cicadas exist on every continent but Antarctica.

The 3,390 comes from counting the species of cicadas mentioned in Allen Sanborn’s Catalogue of the Cicadoidea.

Cicadas were discovered and described in 2014, take a look at research since then published: 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, etc.

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